Halmahera Islands Map

Written by on November 2, 2010 in Maluku Maps with 0 Comments

Halmahera Islands Map

Halmahera, Tribes, halmaheira, morotai, galela,loloda, gorap, tobelo, laba, ibu, tugutil, gamkonora, waioli, sahu, tabaru, modole, kao, makian, patani, sawai, maba,gane, tidore, gebe, mining, nature reserves, tribes


Halmahera, Tribes, halmaheira, morotai, galela,loloda, gorap, tobelo, laba, ibu, tugutil, gamkonora, waioli, sahu, tabaru, modole, kao, makian, patani, sawai, maba,gane, tidore, gebe, mining, nature reserves, tribes

Halmahera, Tribes, halmaheira, morotai, galela,loloda, gorap, tobelo, laba, ibu, tugutil, gamkonora, waioli, sahu, tabaru, modole, kao, makian, patani, sawai, maba,gane, tidore, gebe, mining, nature reserves, tribes

Halmahera, Tribes, halmaheira, morotai, galela,loloda, gorap, tobelo, laba, ibu, tugutil, gamkonora, waioli, sahu, tabaru, modole, kao, makian, patani, sawai, maba,gane, tidore, gebe, mining, nature reserves, tribes


Types of mining and energy which exist such as nickel mining and gold mining. Whereas mine and energy potential that can be processed such as nickel with reserve estimate 42,763,460 tons, gold with reserve estimate 192,000,000 tons, copper with reserve estimate reach 240,000,000 tons, and iron sand with reserve estimate reach 68,840 tons.


Mine Companies

Dongak deposit,
Gebe Island Nickel Mine, Gebe Island
Gosowong Au-Ag deposit
Gosowong mine, Gosowong Au-Ag deposit
Gosowong North deposit
Kencana mine, Gosowong Au-Ag deposit,
Langsat deposit
Tobobo deposit
Toguraci deposit
Weda Bay Mine

Mine Companies

Hila Cu-Zn occurrence, Ambon Island
Kaputusan Mine, Bacan Island



Halmahera Islands 27 Tribes


Halmahera, Tribes, halmaheira, morotai, galela,loloda, gorap, tobelo, laba, ibu, tugutil, gamkonora, waioli, sahu, tabaru, modole, kao, makian, patani, sawai, maba, gane, tidore, gebe



Buli 2.520 Islam

North Maluku, central Halmahera, east coast. 3 villages. Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Wajamli, Jawanli).


‘collecting eggs’ (maleo) – Buli, Halmahera

Galela 79.999 Animism


41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. North Maluku, Galela Bay, north of Tobelo to northern tip of Halmahera; Morotai Island except southeast quadrant; Gunage and Moari islands near Kayoa, Bacan, Obi, scattered along the southwest coast of Halmahera. Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. 65% intelligibility with Loloda [loa], Loloda 85% with Galela.

Gamkonora 1.500 Islam

North Maluku, north Halmahera, a few coastal villages south of the Ibu area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli].


Gane 4.300 Islam

North Maluku, Halmahera Island, south southern peninsula. Alternate names: Gani, Giman. Dialects: Similar to East Makian [mky], Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky].

Gebe 2.650 Islam

North Maluku, Gebe, Yoi’umiyal, and Gag islands between southern Halmahera and Waigeo Island (Papua). 4 villages. Alternate names: Gebi. Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn].

Gorap 1.000 Animism

North Maluku, Morotai Island, Pilowo and Waringin villages; Central Halmahera, Bobane and Igo villages. Dialects: Reportedly a mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited.

Ibu  35 Animism

Ethnic population: 50 to 200 (1984). North Maluku, north Halmahera Island, Ibu River mouth, Gamlamo and Gamici villages. Dialects: May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj].


Kao 4000

North Maluku, interior North Halmahera, Kao town area, Kao River mouth area. Alternate names: Ka’u, Kau. Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu], but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch.

Laba 2.000

North Maluku, interior south end of Loloda District. 4 villages. Alternate names: Kedi, South Loloda. Dialects: Phonology like Galela [gbi], 70% intelligibility, 75% with Loloda [loa]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela, 78% with Loloda.

Loloda 15.000 Christian

Bakun. North Maluku, northwest coast of Halmahera. Alternate names: Loda, North Loloda. Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility with Laba [lau] very limited. 85% intelligibility with Galela [gbi], Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda.


Halmahera, north coast of southeast peninsula; Wasilei area. Alternate names: Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli.

Makian East 20.000 Islam

18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). North Maluku, east Makian Island, south Mori Island, Kayoa islands, west coast of south Halmahera, Bacan and Obi islands. Transmigration project near Kao. Alternate names: Makian Dalam, Makian Timur. Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn].

The Makian Timur (East Makian) also called the Makian Dalam (Inner Makian), live on the east coast of the island of Makian. The rest of the island is occupied by the Makian Barat (West Makian or Outer Makian). The Makian Timur people also can be found in small communities on the islands of Mori, Bacan, Obi, and Kayoa to the south, and on the western coastland and in the north central transmigrant area of Malifut on Halmahera, a larger island to the east. The small archipelago where they live is made up of a string of volcanoes. One of the volcanoes, Kie Besi, is still active. This mountain has erupted many times in the past and claimed many lives. The eruption of 1975 forced the government to evacuate the residents to Malifut on Halmahera island.Makian is part of the North Maluku province. Maluku, historically called the Spice Islands, is a string of over one thousand islands scattered over the eastern portion of Indonesia. It includes most of the islands between Sulawesi and New Guinea and between Timor and the Philippines. This huge province was divided into North Maluku and Maluku in 1999.Some observers have classified the Makian as one people group with two dialects. However, careful linguistic analysis has revealed that the the West Makian language, Jitinee, is part of the West Papuan language family, while the East Makian language, Tabayama, is part of the Austronesian language family, the dominant language family among Indonesian people groups.
The Makian Timur make their living as farmers. Since their land is not appropriate for farming rice, they primarily farm corn and bananas. Unfertile land (jerame), is generally left to lie fallow for as long as 7-10 years. Until the original owner returns, such land becomes the property of anyone who works it. The Makian Timur also cultivate coconuts, which are processed to become copra. The Makian who live in Halmahera and other islands mostly work as fishermen, using fishing rods and hooks, dragnets, or large bamboo fish traps. The social system of the Makian Timur is a clan system, called a soa. As descendants from the same line, members of one soa must marry outside their soa. Traditionally, a new couple lives in the husband’s neighborhood. Muslims


Makian and Woda

Woda is the low island in the foreground

Makian West 12.000 Islam

7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. North Maluku, west Makian Island, some Kayoa Islands, west coast of south Halmahera areas. Alternate names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar. Dialects: Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian.

Bacanese Malay 2.500 Islam

Over 1,000 in Labuha (1987 J. Collins). North Maluku, Bacan Island west of southern Halmahera; former Labuha palace area, 1 village; Mandioli Island, and half of Waya and Lele villages. Alternate names: Bacan, Batjan.

Malay, North Moluccan 700.000 Islam

100,000 monolinguals. North Maluku, Halmahera, Sula, and Obi islands. Labuha neighborhood (Christian), and some other families with parents of different ethnic origins. Alternate names: Ternate Malay. Dialects: Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. More similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs].

Modole 2.000

interior north Halmahera Island, Kao River headwaters. Alternate names: Madole. Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole.

Pagu 3.310 Animism

interior North Halmahera south of Modole [mqo] to the mouth of Kao River. Alternate names: Pago, Pagoe. Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko).

Patani 10.600 Islam

Halmahera, narrow tip of southeast peninsula and west along the coast. 9 villages

The Patani-Maba live in the eastern regions of Halmahera Island in the province of North Maluku. The provinces of North Maluku and Maluku were created when the province of Maluku was divided in 1999.The Maluku Islands are an archipelago consisting of over one thousand islands, and covering the area between Sulawesi and New Guinea and between the island of Timor and the Philippines. The Maluku Islands are commonly known as the Spice Islands, named for their critical role in the spice trade between Asia and Europe in earlier centuries. In fact, when Columbus unexpectedly found America, he was looking for a way to travel to these islands by going west rather than east from Europe.The Patani-Maba dominate the southeast peninsula of Halmahera, including the areas of Maba and Patani Gebe. They can be found primarily in nine villages: Patani, Peniti, Tepeleu, Gemya, Kipai, Wailegi, Yeisowo, Banemo, and Moreala, while in Sibenpopu they live together with speakers of Tobelo. This region can only be reached by sea from Ternate or from Gebe, or via a ship which sails once a month from Tobelo.
Most Patani-Maba make their living as farmers or fishermen, and some work in the wood processing industry. Most still practice a migratory pattern of agriculture; moving from time to time to find better sustenance after they have depleted the soil’s fertility in one area. Their pattern of dry rice farming is similar to that of most other peoples in the region using a “slash-and-burn” method. This method receives its name from the practice of opening new farmland by cutting down trees and burning the underbrush.The initial clearing of the field is accomplished with the help of a large group of neighbors. This system of mutual cooperation among neighbors is called gotong royong. This pattern is very comon throughout Indonesia and is not only used for clearing of new land, but also for building houses, and holding weddings, funerals, and other activities. A celebration of the importance and value of gotong royong is seen in the movements of the Cawa dance. Patani-Maba society utilizes a clan system. Life mates must be found outside one’s own clan. After marriage, a couple initially lives near the husband’s family and then move to a new area when they are more established.
The Patani-Maba are followers of the Islamic religion.

Sahu 7.500 Christian

3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua. North Maluku, southwestern north Halmahera Island. Alternate names: Sa’u, Sahu’u, Sau. Dialects: Pa’disua (Palisua), Tala’i. Similar to Waioli [wli], Gamkonora [gak].

Sahu tribe is known a good preservation inheritance of customs and culture as well, so that is why their culture and their life are so unique.

Suku Sahu
Sahu tribe is known a good preservation inheritance of customs and culture as well, so that is why their culture and their life are so unique. This tribe is living in the valley Sahu and has a traditional house that the roof is made of woven sago leaves, Sasadu. Sasadu is usually used for celebrate the rice harvest and to communicate something together in order getting one decision.
Suku Wayoli
Wayoli tribe society are generally farmers because their land is blessed with fertile soil. Wayoli tribes also often hold custom events, and lived not only in West Halmahera, but also South Halmahera.

West Halmahera still have the ethnic diversity of the indigenous culture is still strong as Gamkonora tribe located in the mountains Gamkonora, Tobaru Tribe, Mother Tribe and Loloda Tribe. The art of Halbar include soya-soya dance, Legu dance, cakalele, etc



Sawai  12.000 Islam

Gane Timur and Weda districts, Halmahera, south and southeast peninsula coasts. 13 villages. Alternate names: Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were. Dialects: Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni].


Tabaru 15.000 Christian

Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba districts. Alternate names: Tobaru. Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. Northern dialect is the main one. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible.

Taliabu Mangei 4.520 Christian

500 to 1,500 in Mangei. North Maluku, Taliabu Island, northwest Mangole, Sula Islands. Alternate names: Taliabo. Dialects: Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mange’e, Mange, Mang, Soboyo, Sobojo). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar.

Ternate Tribe 46.000


The Ternate of Izndonesia live on the small island of Ternate, which is close to the larger island of Halmahera in the province of North Maluku, mid-way between northern Sulawesi and the western tip of Papua. Halmahera and its outlying islands (which includes Ternate), covers approximately 6,500 square miles. The Maluku Islands, historically called the Spice Islands, are a string of over one thousand islands scattered over the eastern portion of Indonesia. They include most of the islands between Sulawesi and New Guinea and between Timor and the Philippines. Fifty percent of the Ternate people reside on the island of Ternate and the other fifty percent have migrated elsewhere, but still continue to identify themselves as Ternate. Areas of Ternate migration include the islands of Bacan and Obi, as well as other regions both inside and outside the province of Maluku. The Ternate people speak the Ternate language. Experts classify this as a West Papuan language that is part of the North Halmahera language cluster, and not a part of the Austronesian language family dominant among Indonesian people groups.
The main livelihood of the Ternate is farming and fishing. They plant rice, vegetables, legumes, cassava, and sweet potatoes and cultivate cloves, coconuts, and nutmeg. Cloves have a long history in Ternate as the main attraction for the European colonial powers. The Ternate also are known as reliable sailors. Ternate settlements generally are built along roads parallel with coastlines. In rural areas, houses are made from woven grass. In urban areas, various structures of houses are used, many borrowed from newcomers of other people groups.Before the entrance of Islam, the Ternate were grouped into family clusters, each of which was led by a momole. With the entrance of Islam, these momole joined to become one confederation led by a kolano. Later, after Islam became more solidly entrenched, the kolano became sultanates. In the kolano structures, genealogical and territorial structures had unifying roles in the community. In sultanates, however, the Islamic religion became the unifying factor. The Ternate sultanate still exists to this day, but with only symbolic power.
The majority of the Ternate are Muslims. As followers of Islam, they believe they will be judged based on their good deeds and knowledge of the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book). In the past, the Ternate sultanate, along with the Tidore sultanate, was one of the main disseminators of the Islamic religion in the eastern portion of Indonesia.

Tidor Tribe 28.000

The Tidore reside on the island of Tidore in the regency of Central Halmahera, North Maluku Province. Tidore is one of many islands in the Maluku archipelago. The Maluku Islands, historically called the Spice Islands, is a string of over one thousand islands scattered over the eastern portion of Indonesia. It includes most of the islands between Sulawesi and New Guinea and between Timor and the Philippines. While many ethnic groups inhabit the Tidore district capital city of Soa-Siu, the Tidore people dominate the smaller villages on the island. In everyday conversation, the Tidore speak their own Tidore language. They also understand the neighboring Ternate language, which for a long time was the trade language of the Halmahera region. The Tidore people are closely related to their neighbors on Ternate linguistically, historically, sociologically, and culturally. However, each group sets a high value on maintaining its own identity. No Ternate person likes to be classified as a Tidore, and vice-versa.For years, the Ternate people have been in closer contact than the Tidore with peoples from the western parts of the Indonesian archipelago. As a result, Tidore are sometimes classified as less educated than the Ternate. In general, however, the Tidore are more industrious than the Ternate.
Cultural observers generally divide the areas of North Maluku and Central Halmahera into several regions of cultural influence: the Ternate, Tidore, and Bacan. The Tidore cultural region includes the Tidore islands, Central Halmahera, and East Halmahera. Most Tidore earn a living by farming, fishing, trading, or working for the government. Crops include rice, corn, sweet potato, cassava, and peanuts. They also cultivate numerous spices, such as cloves, nutmeg, coconut, and cocoa bean. Spices are a distinctive feature of the Maluku archipelago and were a major motivating force behind European colonialism. The Tidore kinship system is patrilineal (tracing descent through the father). An important family group is the clan, called a soa. According to Tidore tradition, the ideal marriage is between first cousins. The couple traditionally has a choice of living either near the family of the groom or bride.
The Tidore are loyal followers of Islam. In the past, the Tidore sultantate, along with the Ternate sultanate, was one of the central forces behind the spread and development of Islam in Maluku. Every village has at least one mosque (mesjid) or prayer room (surau). Islamic teachers and scholars are the informal leaders of Tidore communities.

Tobelo 27.700 Christian

north Halmahera Island, Tobelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts; Halmahera Tengah, Maba and Wasile districts; Papua, Sorong, north half of Morotai, coastal areas of Kao Bay and inland, Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, Raja Ampat islands. Dialects: Dodinga, Boëng, Tobelo (Heleworuru).


Tugutil 2.590 Animism

Halmahera Island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Kecamatan Tobelo, Taboulamo area in Kecamatan Kao, the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Kecamatan Wasilei, Dodaga and Tutuling rivers, Akelamo and Mabulan rivers in Kecamatan Maba, Tanjung Lili, villages of Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno. A few on Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers. Dialects: Teluk Lili, Kusuri. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo variety.


In addition of the community who has been the resident of the island of Halmahera and surrounding islands, generaly the name of Togutil tribe still sounds strangely and new for Indonesian”s people. This is due to a lack of information, from both print and electronic media in Indonesia. Meanwhile, for the residents of the island of Halmahera, when they hear the word “Togutil” that what they have in their mind is a tribe that live in the jungle, nomad, sleeping in the huts are made of potluck and wearing only a loincloth to cover the vital parts of their bodies. Moreover, the meaning of the word “Togutil” for the people of Ternate is “ignorance”, “backwardness” and “primitive”.

Many stories arising about the origin of the existence of this tribe. There is a story which states that the tribe was originally the citizen who had fled to avoid the tax set of the colonial government of Dutch at that time. There is also a story which states that the Togutil tribe was once a Portuguese soldiers who had fled into the jungle due to losing battle with Kora-kora, the army of the Sultan of Ternate . However, the stories of the origin of the existence of the isolated tribe Togutil are stories circulating in the midst of society so there needs to be a further research on this subject.

The areas inhabited by the tribe are spread across several regions in the interior of Halmahera island. In the North is in the interior of Tobelo and the middle part are in Dodaga, in the interior of Kao and in the interior of Wasilei. While in the South are in the interior of Maba and Buli. There is an interesting of this tribe, that is each community feel different to each other and sometimes a community fight against another when they meet. Distinguish one tribal community with other tribal community of Togutil based on a region or an area as the place of their wandering, like Togutil Tobelo, Togutil Kao, Togutil Dodaga, Togutil Wasilei and Togutil Maba.

The Togutil tribal life is so simple that they are very depending on the natural surroundings. Their food is derived from sago palm trees, wild boar or deer hunting dan fishing in the rivers. In addition, they also plant bananas, cassava, sweet potato, papaya and sugar cane. As they are a nomads tribe that the gardens they planted not to do intensively that the forests in the region show no significant interference. The government ever attempted to give them a settlement. Due to they have been accustomed to live in the jungle then overtime the settlements have been granted to them had left and back to live as a nomadic tribe. There are many valuable things shown by this tribe to us that is keeping the jungle, preserve the jungle and do not ever hurt it.

When you hear the word “TOGUTIL”, then the shadow that appears in the minds of all people in Ternate, North Maluku and certainly will be focused on the tribal communities who live in the interior of the island of Halmahera nomadic. But maybe it is different with young people outside the province, such as those in Sulawesi, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, etc., name of tribe Togutil maybe this was the first hearing. For the people of Ternate, the word “Togutil” as a term, it is identical with the meaning of the word “primitive”, “backwardness”, “stupidity” “backwardness” and many other connotations other similar means.

In the daily lives of people in North Maluku, which until now has also entered the digital era as the people on the island of Java, but there are still relatives in the interior of the island of Halmahera whose life is still primitive and backward and away from the touch of modernization. Though this country has been independent more than 60 years ago.

Togutil indigenous tribe is isolated in his own country. Something like this has also been expressed by observers Culture Djoko Su’ud Sukahar in his writings; Foreign & Isolated Tribes, Detiknews, dated August 21, 2008 that flicked that: “Sixty-three years we have independence. Independence that still leaves a long remorse. Not only because the standard of living of the people who did not improve, but still many of our brothers who live isolated. They are strangers to us, and we are foreign to them, like a tribe of people who live in rural Togutil Halmahera island “. Although they are still primitive due to the nomadic lifestyle without merobah and destroy nature, but their existence as it has provided a valuable lesson to us all in terms of preserving the forest. As if they commanded, and do not ever destroy nature.

As I explained in the articles on the previous post that in the days of the island of Halmahera Pleistochen still blend with the other small islands that exist today, such as the island; Morotai, Hiri, Ternate, Maitara, Tidore, Mare, Moti, Makian, Kayoa, Bacan, Gebe and so on. Natural changes that occur over hundreds of thousands of years and a shift in the evolution of the earth’s crust has formed small islands. Halmahera is the main island in this region, and is the oldest terrain, in addition to Seram island in Central Maluku.

Logically, as the island of Halmahera is the main island and the mainland of the oldest, it is certain that the development of life and the spread of “North Maluku man” would also originated from this land. But that is not a subject I in this paper. The discussion focused solely on the existence of a community of people Togutil remaining tribes who are behind in socio-cultural development because they are isolated or isolate themselves from interaction with other human environment. Their lives have been integrated with nature so that the rain forests, rivers and caves in the jungles of the interior of the island of Halmahera into their homes.

Knowingly or not, some people may conclude that the statement above indicates that the North Maluku man who had advanced as modern and current is also used to be like “man Togutil” this.

If we are wise, then this is not necessarily granted immediately denied, because if we study the “Anthropology of Science” then we must understand that every nation or tribe anywhere in the world on its way to be experiencing the stages of such development. For example, the Caucasian (Europeans) who had previously developed and has become a modern man, as now, was formerly also a primitive tribe (Vicking) whose life is still hanging with the gifts of nature (Nomad) like this Tugutil.

Returning to our discussion of “Spare Togutil” … the scientific records of this tribe, was first presented in 1929 in the form of a short article contained in the book: “De Ternate Archipel” Serie Q, 43 Ontleedn aan de Memorie van van den overgave toenmaligen Controleur Tobelo van, PJM Baden, van March 26, 1929, pag 401-404.

Many descriptions of the various parties and the public about tribal people Togutil is very different and confusing with each other. All that is true, because they know and see within a different time and space so that the description of the birth of this tribe Togutil different results.

In the interior of the island of Halmahera, the nomadic community is seen in some areas. In the north there are in the interior Tobelo, in the middle as there is in Dodaga, Kao inland, inland Wasilei and slightly to the south there are also several of their communities in the interior Maba and Buli. Each community (group) of this primitive tribe is different from one another. They even fought each other when meeting.

However, for the people of North Maluku, each group of people Tugutil, all referred to as “Interest Togutil” only. What distinguishes them is the designation for the area where their wanderings, for example Togutil Tobelo, Togutil Kao, Togutil Dodaga, Togutil Wasilei, Togutil Maba, etc..

Resettlement effort to isolated communities is a major program of government in an effort to familiarize their sedentary life and farming (farming). Settled with the hope to improve the physical and spiritual well-being. This effort is intended to enable them to quickly achieve a standard of living is generally parallel to the Indonesian people.

On this idea, local governments in North Maluku in 1971 had built settlements (relocation) for tribal people in the district Wasilei Togutil Dodaga Central Halmahera. What is meant by the people Togutil Dodaga Togutil tribe is a group of people who live in the woods near Dodaga. The addition of the word Dodaga behind the name of this ethnic group is that it can easily distinguish them from those other tribes Togutil Wasilei contained in the district, as well as in other districts in the interior of the island of Halmahera.

Some time after this Dodaga Togutil tribes living in government-built relocation site, they returned again to the forest and live longer according to the old ways. The incident raises the question, why this effort failed, while similar efforts succeeded in other places, such as interest on the island of Seram Naulu, Bukit Dayak people in Kalimantan, Sumatra, etc. Sakai tribe.

Communities in Villages around saying that people Togutil when the rainy season, was disturbed by the noise of rain falling, because the roof is made of the leaves so that they are frightened and run back again into the forest. Another reason may be because they are unfamiliar with the “clothing” and “food” our style.


A detailed description of the settlement, the origin and tribal life in the interior of the island of Halmahera Togutil is totally unknown to our knowledge of the world. It is extremely difficult to obtain detailed and reliable information from existing reports on Halmahera without doing his own research in the field.

However, in about the year 1979, the University of Pattimura Ambon had done field research is exploration through the approach of Social Anthropology of the tribes in the interior Togutil Tobelo to seek answers to the failure of this tribal settlement efforts, the research report written by J. Mus Huliselan namely; problem Togutil Resettlement Ethnic Groups in Central Halmahera District Wasilei Pejajagan A Report, University Patimura, Ambon, 1980.

tugutil-tribe-in-jar-photo-by-malik-Abdullatif-Geomin-different-mine-pot-halmaheraSaya cite some point the results of the study, which states that: According to our results, when viewed from the settlement system of the people Togutil Wasilei can be divided into 3 groups, namely:
A. Those who wander in the forests with caves which houses the emergency shelter.
2. Those who move in a certain location with a housing system that has been organized (in Toboino and Tutuling).
3. Those who settled on a site with a settlement pattern that has regular (at Paraino).

The research was conducted on the second and third. The first group is the wanderer who was named by the second and third groups and population sub Wasilei as’ Biri-Biri People “. They are difficult to be found and their suspicion of outsiders is huge.

Biri-Biri people live are always hostile to people Togutil Dodaga (second and third groups). Every meeting between the two groups is definitely settled by a fight. The second and third group considers each of collateral or a party, while both these groups did not recognize the Biri-Biri as being a party to them.

People Togutil Dodaga as one sub-tribe Tobelo In, residing at 3 locations chosen by their own in the near Dodaga, about 30 km from the capital district Wasilei (Lolobata). Some of them are people who have resettled Togutil tribe in 1971. These three sites are located; Paraino, Toboino and Tutuling as mentioned in the above study. Dodaga Togutil people come from two places, namely:
A. Kao region, namely from Biang, Gamlaha & Kao own.
2. Tobelo region, namely from the Kupa-kupa, Ufa and Efi-effi.

Judging from the language used according to the research, it seems a greater influence Boeng Tobelo language of this tribe. Dodaga Togutil people mostly from the Kao. They only understand one language and to master the language Tobelo long time even though they reside in an environment that Maba-speaking majority.

Dodaga Togutil people have closed themselves to get in touch with the outside world until about 1961, only then there is contact between them with other people around Halmahera the middle. The nature of this silence is understandable because they are run.

Transfer of tribal ancestors Togutil Dodaga of his native region is due to avoid payment obligations Balahitongi (tax) imposed by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies to the antiquity of their ancestors. When and how the process takes place not known for certain.

In the book “De Ternate Archipel” (1929, p 401-402) explicitly stated that: In 1927, for the first time people charged Togutil Balasting (tax) amounted to 1.20 guilders by the Dutch East Indies government. And every year since 1929, plus 0.20 Gulden. If both statements are compared, it can be put forward two arguments, namely:
A. If it is true that the migration into jungle hurtan Dodaga Togutil are people, then they only do that after the year 1927 because of charges Balasting.
2. But if it is a migratory people who fled because Tobelo Balasting, the migration had been done long before 1927.

Thus difficult to distinguish whether the Togutil Dodaga were Tobelo (Boeng) or native Togutil people. Until now no one keteranganpun which gives a clear indication of the difference. And apparently, to this sense of “People Togutil” had been used for naming all the nomads who live in the jungle interior of the island of Halmahera in North Maluku.

Patimura University researchers who conducted the study, concluded that the rejection of people Togutil Dodaga to accept the notion that they belong to ethnic groups and bahklan Togutil they appoint another person (the Sheep) as Togutil, this may fit the fact that they are the ones Tobelo (Boeng) who first fled to the woods. This fact is supported by the designation of origin where they are at the origin Tobelo Villages and Kao is no place of residence of the native tribes Togutil.

Thus, it certainly raises the question: Who exactly was Togutil tribe ..? Although this problem can not be solved until today, people familiar with the jungle tribe Togutil in Halmahera there are two, namely: 1) A person who has been Togutil Dodaga relocation can be invited by the government and 2) The Original Togutil surviving in the forest interior that still use the pattern dependence of life and living from the gifts of nature (nomads) and not familiar with farming systems and life as yet untouched by the outside world.


Togutil tribal people there who live in coastal areas but most are in existing forests inland river is the source of their life. They do not know the system of government and binding power. They also do not know the farming system of parks and residential areas. Most of them wander in the forests of certain caves or homes as emergency shelter which is considered his world. They depend on the nature of life. In dress, they still use a “loincloth” made of leaves and bark, without wearing clothes.

Togutil tribal people who live in the native forests of Halmahera was often showered with prejudice; backward and hates foreigners. They use dogs as an early action to dispel if a stranger enters their territory.

As forests are home to tribal people Togutil, then the tree is considered as the source of the birth of a new generation. In addition to sticking a magical element, the tree can also be a symbol of birth (genetic reproduction). I quote a few notes on the YPHL Competition (2008) with the topic; Trees As a symbol of birth, Considers Local understanding of the Tree in the Forest Damages Recovery Efforts, written by Anthon Ngarbingan in www.kabarindonesia.com dated October 31, 2008, suggests that there are some community groups in areas such as interest Togutil Baborino, Buli, East Halmahera – North Maluku province, which uses a tree as a symbol of the birth of a baby in the middle of the family. When a baby is born, then one family member should plant a tree, which symbolizes the presence of a new generation in the middle of the family.

Things like this that cause people Togutil can survive in the woods, with no need to destroy the forest. In fact, their lifestyle to move where. This practice is also carried by several families who live in Tobelo, North Halmahera. They often plant a fruit tree as a symbol of a baby in the middle of the family.

Togutil people assume that the link between children who are born with a tree planted by the real life they would also like the tree, by which will grow larger and produce something that could be useful for everyone.

Togutil tribal people today are not familiar with farming systems, their livelihood systems is to collect forest produce and hunting within a certain period, then eaten with the results obtained. During the food is still there, extended family members do not perform foraging activities. They will return to collect food and hunting reserves when food is running out. Togutil tribal people usually get food straight from the tree, such as fruits and tubers.

Tugutil hunting tribe is a group (all men of extended family members) with the use of dogs. The tools used are hunting spears, machetes and arrows along the tube (poison). In an attempt catch prey, they also recognize the use of snares. People are adept at making meshes Togutil of a piece of rattan and young plants are flexible curved to ensnare. Type of animal that is hunted pigs, deer, pheasant, birds, skunks, snakes, lizards and bats.

Togutil tribal people in an effort to collect food, perform in groups, such as sago gathering, or on their own like a clump of tubers (Bete, Mangere & Gihuku) and fruits. Because they dwelt near the river, so fishing is also a basic livelihood. Seruas bamboo transformed into the rice cooker pot or potions, and a piece of Manggar, young palm leaves strung together so takir, natural cup. The resin of hibum, giant walnut as tennis balls, four times the usual walnuts, the skin is cut, burned, like a candle flame torch at night.

face-the-tribe togutilBagi Togutil tribal people, a dog is a treasure of the most high. A Togutil without dogs would be crippled on the job and not passionate. This may be because the role of dogs is so large in the life of a Togutil in the woods, either berbuiru preformance and make a living. Wherever the tribe Togutil go, he will be accompanied by his dog. Because that’s not surprising that a dog can cause problems with disputes between individuals and between groups that lead to a small war. Problem-murder suicide, relatives and the rift between inter-group might be able to arise from a dog.

Other information about the tribe that was almost bare (dressed in a loincloth) is very diverse. Encyclopedia Ethnic Groups in Indonesia (LP3ES, 1996) called it a “tribe Togutil” who lived in the woods and Tutuling Dodaga, Wasile District, Central Halmahera, North Maluku. According to the Encyclopedia, the population was 600 people Togutil. Another source called it “Oho Ngana Manyawa” which means forest or jungle people who like to kill (menghabisil life) strangers.

In this paper Christantiowati in Essence Magazine September 2008 Issue, pages 124-130 writes that Rachma Tri Thistle Bird Preservation of Indonesia institutions, and Atiti Katango, rangers from the National Park (TN) Aketajawe, who led this team to Tayawi River, near the village of Kumu, just 15 minutes drive and the village of Bale, Bale suggested that the village residents, Oba district, the City of Tidore Island, North Maluku province once told them that people’s interest first Togutil citizens’ taxes run “(do not want to pay taxes), so Dutch fled or were expelled into the forest. They can also be found around the village of Said, Tukur, Totodoku, Oboi, Tatam, Lili, Mabulan, and Baken. They are called Tobelo In or Tobelo Forest, to distinguish from Tobaru, Tobelo village or that have been to the city.

Togutil tribe that we know today, one day who would have thought possible only a memory. Now the tribal population is decreasing. This could be due to the condition of their living habits which lead to irregular number of births is not worth the death of a member of this tribe. Another thing is the nature of those who are afraid to see another human being this close and their opportunity to get food in winter is difficult and ultimately affect the development of their population and reproductive genetics. Hopefully this tribe did not follow the Moro tribe in northern Halmahera mysteriously missing (unseen) in the previous century. Hopefully, “National Geographic” interested in exploring this place ……!

One of the most valuable thing that has been demonstrated by the tribe Togutil that we consider “less” civilized it has been a lesson to us all, namely: “Take care of nature, forests & lestarikanlah should never spoil it”. Once again, they prove that we are to feel themselves the “civilized” is to learn from their wisdom and hospitality. I’m sure you all would agree with this …! (@. Busranto Abdullatif Prayer)

(Original post by: @ www.busranto.blogspot.com & www.ternate.wordpress.com)





aioli  3.000 Animism

north Halmahera, between Sahu [saj] and Ibu [ibu] languages. Alternate names: Wajoli, Wayoli. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak].


Native of Halmahera Island

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