Tengger Tribe 636,000

Written by on October 1, 2010 in Java Tribes with 0 Comments

Tengger Tribe 636,000

East Java, Tengger-Semeru massif and slopes of Mt. Bromo. Alternate names: Tenggerese. Dialects: May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav].

The Tenggerese live on the slopes of a large volcanic crater high Tenggerese, Tribes, Indonesia, java, suku, tenggerin the Tengger Mountains of eastern Java. Their origins are uncertain, but some consider them to be refugees from the ancient Hindu-Javanese kingdom of Madjapahit who retreated to the mountains at the fall of Madjapahit in the early sixteenth century. Others believe they occupied the area well before that period. The people speak an archaic Javanese dialect called Tengger.
The populous (and still growing) nation of Indonesia has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in the world-more than 300 distinct people groups. Located in Southeast Asia on an archipelago of more than 3,000 islands that command vital sea routes between Australia, Europe, and the Asian mainland, they are the principal link between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. With about sixty percent of the total population, Java is the most populated Indonesian island.
The Tenggerese are farmers who grow corn on dry permanent fields or, by using the “slash and burn” technique, they create temporary agricultural plots called swiddens. For more than a century many have also grown vegetables and potatoes as cash crops. Farms are very small-the average size is about one hectare (slightly over 2.4 acres). Because farms are so small and unable to sustain large families, the number of landless peasants has increased rapidly, causing a swelling immigration to the cities and coastal areas.
Tenggerese youth are free to do their own courting, although parental consent is required. The wedding ceremony takes place in the bride’s home. Ideally, the newlyweds set up their own household, but in many cases they are forced to live with their parents until they can afford their own dwelling. The average household may be an extended family composed of nephews and nieces or younger brothers, sisters, or cousins and may have between seven and ten members.
A village consist of clusters of smaller villages, or hamlets. The village headman is elected for life by the adult (male and female) citizens of the village. He is assisted by village administrators and controls the headmen of the various hamlets.
vMost Tenggerese are Hindus who mix their beliefs with animism (belief that non-living objects have spirits).
Each temple congregation holds periodic rituals to placate and please various gods and protect the group’s peace and prosperity. They also make offerings to the spirits of their deceased ancestors and to spirits connected with certain places. Brahman priests conduct the major religious ceremonies; lower caste priests care for the temples and perform local ceremonies. Rituals are performed in several cycles, with the most important being a six-month cycle. Families arrange “life cycle rituals,” an especially important task when planning the cremation of a family member. Rituals often include music and dance.

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