Ijen Merapi Maelang Nature Reserve

Ijen Merapi Maelang Nature Reserve

Ijen, Ijen Merapi Maelang Nature Reserve, Ijen Merapi, Cagar Alam

The Ijen-Merapi-Maelang Nature Reserve lies in north-east Java, a little south of Baluran National Park. The site consists of volcanic terrain and tropical rainforest.
Three mountains dominate the area: the Gunung Merapi (2,800 m), the Gunung Raung (3,332 m) and the Kawah Ijen (2,250). They are situated in an old crater of about 20 km in circumference. The Gunung Merapi and the Gunung Raung are still active volcanoes. In the crater of the dormant Kawah Ijen a turquoise lake has come into existence. With an area of 5 ha it’s the biggest crater lake of Java.
The third name of the reserve refers to the former hunting park Maelang. Nowadays, flora and fauna in this part of the reserve are protected.
Most of the area is hilly with sharp relief configuration (over 30%) except in the eastern and southern parts which are relatively flat. There is a lake in the Ijen Crater measuring approximately 911m from the east to the west, and 600m from north to south. The reserve includes the crater lake of Ijen. The volume of this crater is about 36,260 m3 and has many sulphur fumeroles. The crater is beautiful. Much of the area forested is fine climax Casuarina (Cemara) forest and Albizzia montane forest. The grass plains of the Ijen higlands are dominated by Themida, Saccharum spontaneum and Cymbopogon vardus. The western slope of the Ijen Crater is very frequently burnt, so that even the cemara trees are dying out. Albizzia forest occurs only on the very steep slopes and mud-streams. The Ijen massif is the source of many rivers, irrigating the many rice plantations in the density populated lowlands. Principal vegetation: Ficus spp., Schleichera oleosa, Pternis wallichiana.
Site Location This Nature Reserve lies in north-east Java, about 32 km west of Banyuwangi town. The reserve is accessible via two entrances: – The eastern entrance from Banyuwangi From Surabaya take a bus heading for Bali and get out in Banyuwangi. From Banyuwangi, minibuses go to Jambu and on to Linci. From Linci it’s a 20 km walk to Kawah Ijen (6 hours). You might get a lift or hire some other kind of transportation to ride all the way to the end of the road, which ends 3 km past Linci. From there it’s a 3 hours walk to Pos Paltuding. The 3 km climb to the crater will take another three hours. – The easiest and western entrance from Bondowoso From Malang or Surabaya take a bus to Bondowoso, where you get on a minibus to Sempol. From Sempol you can walk to Pos Paltuding (3 hours) or take a minibus to Turah Macan.
* Pos Paltuding
o Guesthouse
* Jampit
o Arabica Guesthouse
o Guesthouse Jampit
* Belawan
o Catimore Belawan
* Sumberwaringin
o Pasanggrahan Sumberwringin
PHPA, Jenderal A. Yani 108, Banyuwangi
PTP XXVI, Jl. Gajah Mada 249, Jember
* Pos Paltuding – Kawah Ijen 3 hours
* Sumberwringin – Gunung Raung


* Albizzia montana
* Javan Edelweiss – Anaphalis javanica
* Cemara – Casuarina junghuhniana
* Cymbopogon vardus
* Ficus spp.
* Homalanthus giganteus
* Pasang – Lithocarpus sp.
* Pittosporum moluccanum
* Jamuju – Podocarpus imbricatus
* Pternis wallichiana
* Saccharum spontaneum
* Schleichera oleosa
* Themida spp.
* Vaccinium varingiaefilia

* Asiatic wild dog – Cuon alpinus
* Leopard – Panthera pardus
* Common palm civet – Paradoxurus hermaphroditus
* Rusa deer – Cervus timorensis
* Barking deer – Muntiacus muntjak
* Javan short-tailed porcupine – Hystrix javanica

* Grey-breasted Partridge – Arborophila orientalis
* Red Junglefowl – Gallus gallus
* Green Junglefowl – Gallus varius
* Green Peafowl – Pavo muticus
* Collared Kingfisher – Todirhamphus chloris
* Pink-headed Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus porphyreus
* Cattle Egret – Bubulcus ibis
* Javan Pond-Heron – Ardeola speciosa

The volcanic cone of Kawah Ijen dominates the landscape at the eastern end of Java, indonesia. The crater is filled by a spectacular turquoise blue lake, the world’s largest highly acidic crater lake (nearly 1-km-wide). The placid surface is streaked with in wind-blown globules of sulfur and eerie, pale yellow-green clouds.

A continuous upwelling of sulfur from fumaroles at the level of the lake is the basis of a thriving enterprise. Pure hot red sulfur, oozing out of hissing fissures, turns bright yellow as it dries. It’s then broken up into big chunks with hammers and loaded into baskets carried by human beasts of burden down the trail to the collection point near Paltuding.

The sulfur gatherers carry their loads in two baskets balanced on a pikulan pole made of bambu ampel, the strongest and most pliable bamboo available. Loads weigh up to 50-70 kilos. The bearers receive Rp350 ($0.04) per kilo from the cooperative. Take-home is pay is Rp40,000 to 50,000 per day ($4-$5). Nine to 12 tons of sulfur are delivered each day. A natural source of sulfuric acid, the sulfur is used by oil refineries and in the production of detergents and fertilizers.

Ijen caldera is the largest in Java with a diameter of 16 km. The size of the crater is about 960 m x 600 m.
Several extinct active cones are found inside the caldera such as G. Cilik (1872 m), G. Pendil (2375 m), G. Anyar (1276 m), G. Genteng (1712 m), G. Gelaman (1726 m), G. Kukusan (1994 m), G. Papak (2099 m), G. Widodaren (2100 m), G. Blau (1774 m), G. Gendingwaluh (1519 m), G. Lingker (1630 m), G. Kunci (1788 m).
The primary dangers at Ijen are pyroclastic flows, lahars, and lava flows.
Thermal springs are located on Ijen lakeshore. The lakeshore fumarole discharges (T=170~245-ÂȘC) have both a magmatic and a hydrothermal component.

Pictures thanks to Wikipedia


Ijen, Ijen Merapi Maelang Nature Reserve, Ijen Merapi, Cagar Alam,


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