West Kalimantan, Muara Kendawangan Nature Reserve

Written by on November 19, 2010 in Kalimantan West Nature Reserves with 0 Comments

Muara Kendawangan Nature Reserve

Latitude : 2 39 25 S Logitude : 110 19 7 E
Altitude : 0 to 191 metres
Area : 150000 ha Wetlands: 140000 ha
Legislation : Decree of Dir.Gen. of Forestery No. 2240/DJ/1981; Decree of Min.of Agricult. No. 757/Kpts/UM/82
Tenure : Government of Indonesia
Site Description
A large area of lowland swamp forests with about 65,000 ha of peatswamp forest, 75,000 ha of freshwater swamp forest and 10,000 ha of mangrove forest. It is situated on the south-west coast. It represents a complete serial succession of lowland habitats, of sandbars (which are now mostly covered with alang-alang) through swamp forests to dry lowland and has some important waterbird feeding areas (including migratory wader species). The area has a rich wildlife including rare/protected species such as Orang Utan, Proboscis Monkey and Crocodile. It is of low agricultural and forestry value and almost uninhabited. Principal vegetation: Mangrove, freshwater swamp forest, peat swamp forest, heath forest. The site is generally a flat wetland area where three main rivers occur: the Kendawangan river at the north, Air Hitam Kecil, and Air Hitam Besar rivers. The later occurs outside the CA boundary. The Air Hitam rivers are blackwater rivers, and the lower courses of the rivers vary in width and much dependend on flooding season. At the river banks, Rasau (Pandanus helicopus) vegetation generally occur. During dry season, the lower course of the rivers have a width of 20 m, and the upper course is narrower (5 m wide). Bushes and alang-alang on sandy terraces (Klaru land system) are commonly found in the reserve, as well as burned peat swamp forest. Thick forest area occurs in patchy distribution, mainly at the small river banks. Most of the forest has undergone burning period, leaving some heath forest with stands of Gelam (Melaluca) which is tolerance to fires, flooding and acid soils. Other dominant tree species are Jelutung (Dyera costulata) and Ramin (Gonystulus bancanus). Peat soils on Mendawai Land System occur particularly at the east of the reserve, near the Air Hitam Besar River. However, the upper cathcment of the river is much disturbed, inculiding for transmigration scheme. There are at least six different habitats in the coastal area: mudflats, mangrove forest, fringing reefs, rocky shores and sandy beaches. Vegetationtypes occur on coastal area comprise mangrove, Gelam, Casuarina, and Pandanus. Extensive mudflats occur at Kendawangan estuary and Tanjung Lumpur. The west coast of Kendawangan is hilly, with some steep cliffs on the coast. Coral reefs fringed some islands in adjacent coastal waters. The Air Hitam rivers influence the coastal waters in the south.
Site Location
The site can be reached both by plane and boat from Pontianak. From this provincial capital, the route is Pontianak-Ketapang-Kendawangan. To reach Ketapang, one can go either by boat (6 hours) or plane (45 minutes). Four regular flights operate daily as well as two regular boat services. The 95 km distance between Ketapang to Kendawangan is served by regular minibus. To reach the southern part of the reserve (Air Hitam Kecil village) one should travel on the sea by boat (6 hours).

List of Birds (94 species)
Species Red Data Book Cites
Actitis hypoleucos
Aegithina tiphia
Aethopyga mystacalis
Aethopyga siparaja
Alcedo meninting
Alcippe brunneicauda
Amaurornis phoenicurus
Anthracoceros albirostris App II
Anthreptes malacensis
Anthreptes singalensis
Aplonis panayensis
Apus affinis
Ardea purpurea
Artamus leucorhynchus
Buceros rhinoceros App II
Butorides striatus
Cacomantis sonneratii
Centropus bengalensis
Centropus sinensis
Chalcophaps indica
Charadrius alexandrinus
Charadrius leschenaultii
Chlidonias hybridus
Chloropsis cyanopogon
Ciconia stormi Endengered
Collocalia esculenta
Corvus macrorhynchos
Dicaeum chrysorrheum
Dicaeum concolor
Dicaeum trigonostigma
Dicaeum trochileum
Dicrurus paradiseus
Dryocopus javensis
Ducula aenea
Ducula bicolor
Egretta garzetta
Elanus caeruleus App II
Eurystomus orientalis
Gallirallus striatus
Geopelia striata
Gerygone sulphurea
Gracula religiosa
Halcyon chloris
Halcyon coromanda
Halcyon pileata
Haliastur indus App II
Harpactes kasumba
Hemicircus concretus
Hirundapus giganteus
Hirundo rustica
Hirundo tahitica
Ictinaetus malayensis App II
Irena puella
Leptoptilos javanicus Vulnerable
Limosa limosa
Lonchura fuscans
Lonchura malacca
Loriculus galgulus App II
Macropygia emiliana
Megalaima henricii
Meiglyptes tristis
Nectarinia calcostetha Nectarinia jugularis
Nectarinia sperata
Numenius arquata
Numenius phaeopus
Nycticorax nycticorax
Pachycephala grisola
Pellorneum capistratum
Pericrocotus igneus
Pluvialis squatarola
Prinia flaviventris
Prionochilus maculatus
Prionochilus percussus
Prionochilus thoracicus
Psittacula alexandri App II
Psittacula longicauda App II
Psittinus cyanurus Lower Risk App II
Pycnonotus cyaniventris
Pycnonotus goiavier
Pycnonotus simplex
Pycnonotus zeylanicus Vulnerable
Reinwardtipicus validus
Rhaphidura leucopygialis
Rhinortha chlorophaea
Rhyticeros corrugatus Vulnerable
Sitta frontalis
Stachyris erythroptera
Sterna bergii
Streptopelia chinensis
Treron olax
Tringa stagnatilis
Xenus cinereus
Zosterops flavus Lower Risk
Nectarinia calcostetha
Nectarinia jugularis
Nectarinia sperata
Numenius arquata
Numenius phaeopus
Nycticorax nycticorax
Pachycephala grisola
Pellorneum capistratum
Pericrocotus igneus
Pluvialis squatarola
Prinia flaviventris
Prionochilus maculatus
Prionochilus percussus
Prionochilus thoracicus
Psittacula alexandri App II
Psittacula longicauda App II
Psittinus cyanurus Lower Risk App II
Pycnonotus cyaniventris
Pycnonotus goiavier
Pycnonotus simplex
Pycnonotus zeylanicus Vulnerable
Reinwardtipicus validus
Rhaphidura leucopygialis
Rhinortha chlorophaea
Rhyticeros corrugatus Vulnerable
Sitta frontalis
Stachyris erythroptera
Sterna bergii
Streptopelia chinensis
Treron olax
Tringa stagnatilis
Xenus cinereus
Zosterops flavus Lower Risk

List of Fish (84 species)
Species Red Data Book Cites
Ambassis interrupta
Anabas testudineus
Aplocheilus panchax
Barbichthys laevis
Barbodes schwanenfeldii
Belontia hasselti
Betta dimidiata
Betta waseri
Brachygobius doriae
Channa lucius
Channa marulioides
Channa micropeltes
Channa pleurophthalmus
Channa striata
Chitala lopis
Clarias batrachus
Clarias meladerma
Clarias teysmanni
Coius microlepis
Crossocheilus oblongus
Cyclocheilichthys apogon
Cyclocheilichthys enoplos
Cyclocheilichthys janthochir
Dasyatis kuhlii
Dermogenys sumatranus
Doryichthys martensii
Epinephelus coioides
Gobiopterus brachypterus
Hampala macrolepidota
Helostoma temminckii
Hemipimelodus borneensis
Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus
Hemisilurus heterorhynchos
Homaloptera stephensoni
Kryptopterus apogon
Kryptopterus limpok
Kryptopterus macrocephalus
Labiobarbus festivus
Lepidocephalichthys pristes
Liza melinopterus Lycothrissa crocodilus
Macrochirichthys macrochirus
Mastacembelus erythrotaenia
Mystus micracanthus
Mystus nemurus
Mystus wyckii
Nandus nebulosus
Neostethus bicornis
Notopterus notopterus
Ompok weberi
Osphronemus goramy
Osteochilus melanopleura
Osteochilus spilurus
Osteochilus waandersii
Oxyeleotris marmorata
Pangasius lithostoma
Parambassis macrolepis
Parambassis wolfii
Periophthalmus chrysospilos
Pristolepis fasciata
Puntioplites bulu
Puntioplites waandersi
Puntius eugrammus
Puntius rhomboocellatus
Rasbora cephalotaenia
Rasbora dorsiocellata
Rasbora dusonensis
Rasbora einthovenii
Rasbora gracilis
Rasbora pauciperforata
Rasbora tornieri
Redigobius chrysosoma
Scatophagus argus
Scleropages formosus Endengered App. I
Sphaerichthys vaillanti
Stigmatogobius brocki
Taeniura lymna
Takifugu oblongus
Tetraodon nigroviridis
Tetraodon palembangensis
Toxotes microlepis
Trichogaster leerii
Trichogaster trichopterus
Wallago leeri

List of Reptiles (2 species)
Species Red Data Book Cites
Crocodylus porosus Vulnerable App II
Varanus salvator App II

List of Vegetations (29 species)
Species Red Data Book Cites
Barringtonia asiatica
Barringtonia racemosa
Becheria frutescens
Buchanania arborescens
Cantinbium muticum
Cassytha capiliaris
Cassytha filiformis
Casuarina equisetifolia
Decaspermum montanus
Drimycarpus heridus
Drosera burmanni
Eugenia sp.

Eugenia spissifolia
Eurycoma longifolia
Ficus sp.
Ilex praetermissa
Lepisanthes sp.
Lumnitzera racemosa
Nepenthes sp.
Ormosia bancana
Palaquium obovatum
Palaquium sokali
Pandanus sp.
Pandanus tectorius
Podocarpus motleyi
Shorea balangeran
Styphelia malayana
Vaccinium loranthifolium
Xyris pauciflora

 

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