North Sulawesi Tangkoko National Park Introduction

Written by on November 19, 2010 in Tangkoko National Park with 0 Comments

North Sulawesi

Tangkoko  National Park Introduction

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Tangkoko National ParkThe Tangkoko-Duasudara nature preserve lies on the northernmost tip of the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, within the administrative province of Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi) at about 40km, or two hours driving from Manado.
Although named as one the Tangkoko-Duasudara nature preserve is actually two adjoining preserves. The Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve (4,446ha) was established in 1919 Total land area of both preserves, including the Batuputih and Batuangus tourism areas is 8,745 ha.
Physical Features
The topography is dominated by the two volcanic cones of Gunung Duasudara (1,351m) and Gunung Tangkoko (1,109m), which are linked by a ridge. A further volcanic cone, the active 450m Gunung Batuangus, lies to the south-east, while to the north-west lies the extensive Pata plateau. To the north-east the steep topography attenuates towards a coast characterized by alternating bays and rocky headlands.
Flora:Tangkoko Rain ForestPredominant vegetation type is primary lowland rain forest which occurs around the three main peaks and on the Pata plateau up to 600m. Above 600m, sub-mountain rain forest displays physical changes in both structure and species composition. Canopy height and mean leaf size are smaller and bryophytes and ferns predominate in the under storey and on trees.
At higher elevations, around the crater rim and peaks of Gunung Tangkoko and Gunung Duasudara, a stunted bryophyte and epiphyte encrusted mountain forest occurs.Fig Tree – Tangkoko National Park In areas disturbed by landslides numerous ferns are present along with pitcher plants Nepenthes sp. and some genera such as Vaccinium spp. This forest type is particularly noteworthy for orchids.
Other notable vegetation types include coastal beach forest which predominates on sandy coastal ridges and is dominated by Calophyllum soulattri and Barringtonia asiatica. A Casuarina equisetifolia dominated secondary forest occurs on newly-exposed Palm Woka – Tangkoko National Parksandy and rocky parts of the reserve, such as on the Tangkoko crater walls and floor, on the slopes of the Batuangus ash cone and on the beach close to Batuangus cone.
Other vegetation types include secondary forest on the lower south-eastern slopes of Gunung Duasudara and areas of alang-alang Imperata cylindrica grassland in areas of both volcanic and anthropogenic disturbance (WWF, 1980).
Fauna:The unusually high productivity of the lowland forest has resulted in a faunal composition with large numbers of relatively few species.
This is exemplified by the frugivores (fruit-eaters), particularly the endemic Celebes black macaque Macaca nigra, for which population densities of about 300 per sq. km have been recorded, although this may have declined over recent years (MacKinnon, 1991). Other endemic species include tarsiers Tarsius spectrum and phalangers; bear cuscus Phalanger ursinus and Celebes cuscus P. celebensis.
Avifauna is well represented with some 140 species recorded from the reserve by 1980. Of particular interest are the Sulawesi endemic rhinoceros hornbill Rhyticeros cassidix, which occurs in extremely high numbers, and maleo Macrocephalon maleo, for which two main nesting areas have been identified at Rumesung and Tiwo, as well as several smaller sites at Lagunde and on the slopes of Gunung Tangkoko.
The proposed marine component of the reserve includes a variety of habitats including well-developed coral reefs. Notable species include turtles; green turtle Chelonia mydas, leatherback Dermochelys coriacea and hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata, although these nest only occasionally .

Mammals
* Bear cuscus – Ailurops ursinus
* Sulawesi dwarf cuscus – Strigocuscus celebensis
* Lesser dog-faced fruit bat – Cynopterus brachyotis
* Celebes black macaque – Macaca nigra
* Sulawesi tarsier – Tarsius spectrum
* Sulawesi palm civet – Macrogalidia musschenbroekii
* Malay civet – Viverra tangalunga
* Lowland anoa – Bubalus depressicornis
* Rusa deer – Cervus timorensis
* Celebes warty pig – Sus celebensis
* Northern long-nosed squirrel – Hyosciurus ileile
* Pale tree squirrel – Prosciurillus leucomus
* Sulawesi tree squirrel – Prosciurillus murinus

Birds
* Maleo – Macrocephalon maleo
* Philippine Scrubfowl – Megapodius cumingii
* Blue-breasted Quail – Coturnix chinensis
* Red Junglefowl – Gallus gallus
* Barred Buttonquail – Turnix suscitator
* Sulawesi Woodpecker – Dendrocopos temminckii
* Ashy Woodpecker – Mulleripicus fulvus
* Sulawesi Hornbill – Penelopides exarhatus
* Knobbed Hornbill – Aceros cassidix
* Purple-winged Roller – Coracias temminckii
* Dollarbird – Eurystomus orientalis
* Common Kingfisher – Alcedo atthis
* Blue-eared Kingfisher – Alcedo meninting
* Sulawesi Kingfisher – Ceyx fallax
* Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher – Cittura cyanotis
* Black-billed Kingfisher – Pelargopsis melanorhyncha
* Ruddy Kingfisher – Halcyon coromanda
* Collared Kingfisher – Todirhamphus chloris
* Sacred Kingfisher – Todirhamphus sanctus
* Green-backed Kingfisher – Actenoides monachus
* Scaly Kingfisher – Actenoides princeps
* Purple-bearded Bee-eater – Meropogon forsteni
* Blue-tailed Bee-eater – Merops philippinus
* Rainbow Bee-eater – Merops ornatus
* Large Hawk-Cuckoo – Cuculus sparverioides
* Plaintive Cuckoo – Cacomantis merulinus
* Rusty-breasted Cuckoo – Cacomantis sepulcralis
* Asian Koel – Eudynamys scolopacea
* Black-billed Koel – Eudynamys melanorhyncha
* Channel-billed Cuckoo – Scythrops novaehollandiae
* Yellow-billed Malkoha – Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus
* Lesser Coucal – Centropus bengalensis
* Bay Coucal – Centropus celebensis
* Ornate Lorikeet – Trichoglossus ornatus
* Yellow-and-green Lorikeet – Trichoglossus flavoviridis
* Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail – Prioniturus flavicans
* Golden-mantled Racquet-tail – Prioniturus platurus
* Blue-backed Parrot – Tanygnathus sumatranus
* Sulawesi Hanging-parrot – Loriculus stigmatus
* Red-billed Hanging-parrot – Loriculus exilis
* Glossy Swiftlet – Collocalia esculenta
* Moluccan Swiftlet – Aerodramus infuscata
* Fork-tailed Swift – Apus pacificus
* House Swift – Apus nipalensis
* Grey-rumped Treeswift – Hemiprocne longipennis
* Minahassa Masked-Owl – Tyto inexspectata
* Sulawesi Owl – Tyto rosenbergii
* Sulawesi Scops-Owl – Otus manadensis
* Brown Hawk-Owl – Ninox scutulata
* Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owl – Ninox ochracea
* Speckled Hawk-Owl – Ninox punctulata
* Satanic Eared-Nightjar – Eurostopodus diabolicus
* Great Eared-Nightjar – Eurostopodus macrotis
* Sulawesi Nightjar – Caprimulgus celebensis
* Spotted Dove – Streptopelia chinensis
* Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove – Macropygia amboinensis
* White-faced Cuckoo-Dove – Turacoena manadensis
* Emerald Dove – Chalcophaps indica
* Stephan’s Dove – Chalcophaps stephani
* Pink-necked Green-Pigeon – Treron vernans
* Grey-cheeked Green-Pigeon – Treron griseicauda
* Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus subgularis
* Superb Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus superbus
* Black-naped Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus melanospila
* White-bellied Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula forsteni
* Grey-headed Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula radiata
* Green Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula aenea
* Pied Imperial – Ducula bicolor
* White Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula luctuosa
* Sombre Pigeon – Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa
* Barred Rail – Gallirallus torquatus
* Buff-banded Rail – Gallirallus philippensis
* Bald-faced Rail – Gymnocrex rosenbergii
* Isabelline Waterhen – Amaurornis isabellinus
* White-breasted Waterhen – Amaurornis phoenicurus
* White-browed Crake – Porzana cinerea
* Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus
* Common Redshank – Tringa totanus
* Common Sandpiper – Tringa hypoleucos
* Red-necked Phalarope – Phalaropus lobatus
* Little Ringed Plover – Charadrius dubius
* Great Crested-Tern – Sterna bergii
* Little Tern – Sterna albifrons
* Brown Noddy – Anous stolidus

* Osprey – Pandion haliaetus
* Jerdon’s Baza – Aviceda jerdoni
* Brahminy Kite – Haliastur indus
* White-bellied Fish-Eagle – Haliaeetus leucogaster
* Lesser Fish-Eagle – Ichthyophaga humilis
* Sulawesi Serpent-Eagle – Spilornis rufipectus
* Spotted Harrier – Circus assimilis
* Sulawesi Goshawk – Accipiter griseiceps
* Spot-tailed Goshawk – Accipiter trinotatus
* Small Sparrowhawk – Accipiter nanus
* Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk – Accipiter rhodogaster
* Black Eagle – Ictinaetus malayensis
* Rufous-bellied Eagle – Hieraaetus kienerii
* Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle – Spizaetus lanceolatus
* Spotted Kestrel – Falco moluccensis
* Oriental Hobby – Falco severus
* Peregrine Falcon – Falco peregrinus
* Red-footed Booby – Sula sula
* Brown Booby – Sula leucogaster
* Little Pied Cormorant – Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
* Cinnamon Bittern – Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
* Black Bittern – Ixobrychus flavicollis
* Black-crowned Night-Heron – Nycticorax nycticorax
* Japanese Night-Heron – Gorsachius goisagi
* Pacific Reef-Egret – Egretta sacra
* Great-billed Heron – Ardea sumatrana
* Purple Heron – Ardea purpurea
* Javan Pond-Heron – Ardeola speciosa
* Striated Heron – Butorides striatus
* Great Frigatebird – Fregata minor
* Lesser Frigatebird – Fregata ariel
* Hooded Pitta – Pitta sordida
* Red-bellied Pitta – Pitta erythrogaster
* Blue-winged Pitta – Pitta moluccensis
* Sulawesi Myzomela – Myzomela chloroptera
* White-eared Myza – Myza sarasinorum
* Golden-bellied Gerygone – Gerygone sulphurea
* Brown Shrike – Lanius cristatus
* Sulphur-bellied Whistler – Pachycephala sulfuriventer
* Slender-billed Crow – Corvus enca
* White-breasted Woodswallow – Artamus leucorynchus
* Ivory-backed Woodswallow – Artamus monachus
* Black-naped Oriole – Oriolus chinensis
* Cerulean Cuckooshrike – Coracina temminckii
* Pied Cuckooshrike – Coracina bicolor
* White-rumped Cuckooshrike – Coracina leucopygia
* Sulawesi Cicadabird – Coracina morio
* White-rumped Triller – Lalage leucopygialis
* Hair-crested Drongo – Dicrurus hottentottus
* Sulawesi Drongo – Dicrurus montanus
* Black-naped Monarch – Hypothymis azurea
* Blue Rock-Thrush – Monticola solitarius
* Red-backed Thrush – Zoothera erythronota
* Eyebrowed Thrush – Turdus obscurus
* Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher – Cyornis omissus
* Citrine Canary-Flycatcher – Culicicapa helianthea
* Asian Glossy Starling – Aplonis panayensis
* Sulawesi Myna – Basilornis celebensis
* White-necked Myna – Streptocitta albicollis
* Finch-billed Myna – Scissirostrum dubium
* Fiery-browed Myna – Enodes erythrophris
* Barn Swallow – Hirundo rustica
* Pacific Swallow – Hirundo tahitica
* Sooty-headed Bulbul – Pycnonotus aurigaster
* Golden-headed Cisticola – Cisticola exilis
* Lemon-bellied White-eye – Zosterops chloris
* Black-crowned White-eye – Zosterops atrifrons
* Mountain Tailorbird – Orthotomus cuculatus
* Sulawesi Babbler – Trichastoma celebense
* Yellow-sided Flowerpecker – Dicaeum aureolimbatum
* Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker – Dicaeum nehrkorni
* Grey-sided Flowerpecker – Dicaeum celebicum
* Plain-throated Sunbird – Anthreptes malacensis
* Black Sunbird – Nectarinia aspasia
* Olive-backed Sunbird – Nectarinia jugularis
* Crimson Sunbird – Aethopyga siparaja
* Grey Wagtail – Motacilla cinerea
* Paddyfield Pipit – Anthus rufulus
* Pechora Pipit – Anthus gustavi
* Black-faced Munia – Lonchura molucca
* Scaly-breasted Munia – Lonchura punctulata
* Southern Black-headed Munia – Lonchura atricapilla

Reptiles
* Green Turtle – Chelonia mydas
* Hawksbill Turtle – Eretmochelys imbricata
* Leatherback Turtle – Dermochelys coriacea
* Draco lineatus
* Common Flying Lizard – Draco volans
* Cyrtodactylus jellesmae
* House Gecko – Hemidactylus frenatus
* Common Sun Skink – Mabuya multifasciata
* Water Monitor – Varanus salvator
* Green Whip Snake – Ahaetulla prasina
* Brown Cat Snake – Boiga irregularis
* Rhabdophis chrysargoides
* Wagler’s Pit-Viper – Tropidolaemus wagleri
* Red-tailed Pipe Snake – Cylindrophis ruffus
* Indonesian Spitting Cobra – Naja sputatrix
* Yellow-lipped Sea Snake – Laticauda colubrina
* Reticulated Python – Python reticulatus

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