South Sulawesi Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations,Tribes Map

South Sulawesi

 Nature Reserves, Minerals, Mining, Plantations, Tribes Map

Minerals, Mining,, gold, copper, Iron, Zinc, Sulawesi, sulawesi south, sulawesi selatan, Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations

 One of factors that support the high of PDRB South Sulawesi Province is mining sector. Its production includes gold, selatan space, iron, iron sand, granite, lead, nickel rock as its excellent product. Nickel production reach 73,283,138 kg per year, is in Luwu Timur and Luwu Utara Regency.

Mine Companies

P.T. International Nickel Mine, Soroako
Soroako Mine (Soroaka Mine; Sorowako Mine), Soroako

Golf Clubs

Makassar

Makasar Golf Club, Lapangan Golf Badoka

http://www.baddokagolfmakassar.com/club-house/facilities

Address:Jl Bira
Makassar – South Sulawesi
The only sports facility in makassar gMakasar Golf Club, Lapangan Golf Badoka, golf courses in indonesia, i indonesian, aceh, bali, nusa tenggara, batam, bintan, irian jaya, java,jakarta, kalimantan, krakatoa, sulawesi,sumatra, surabaya, bogor, bandung, surakarta, yogyakarta, far east, golf, golf clubs, golf club, golf courses, golf course database, golf course, golf course guide, golf course directory, golf,course information, address, places to play, where can I play, visitor, visitorsolf in the area of road districts Batara Bulurokeng Bira, northeast of the city of Makassar. Golf Baddoka founded by Admiral Sudomo in 1969 with the name of Makassar Golf Club. Hole 18 has a difficulty level different in the left and right side of road Batara Makassar Bira, has an area of 466,983 M2.
From Hasanuddin Airport, the distance to the Padang Golf Baddoka only about 5 Km.
Makassar city center via the Toll road (road Prof. Ir. Sutami) only 11 km, while from the city center via the shaft makassar – Maros only 15 Km.

Soroako Golf Club

Address:Makassar – South Sulawesi
Telephone +62-21-378374
Fax +62-21-3842413

Proposed World Heritages

Maros Prehistoric Cave South Sulawesi

http://cavernicoles.wordpress.com/2007/05/08/sesarmoides-microphthalmus-a-new-species-cave-crab-from-maros-sulawesi/

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, maros

 Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
South Sulawesi
Ref.: 288

Sesarmoides microphthalmus, a new species cave crab from Maros, Sulawesi

Sesarmoides microphthalmus

Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse & Ng, 2007 – Male and female individuals collected from underground river in Barru (South Sulawesi). Collected in 2002 by me on riverbank with muds substrat. (Foto. C.Rahmadi)

The trip to Maros karst in 2002 under the grant of ARCBC, was succesfully added a new species of cave crab from underground water of Maros Karst. The species has been named and published in the journal of Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2007, Vol. 55. No. 1. The species name is Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse and Ng, 2007 belong to family Sesarmidae.

The species closely related to Sesarmoides jacobsoni from cave in Gunung Sewu Karst. The species is only known from type locality.

Note by: Cahyo Rahmadi

Published on The Brunei Times (http://www.bt.com.bn/en)
Sulawesi cave of hands
Liz Price
UJUNG PANDANG, INDONESIA

Sunday, January 20, 2008

THE wall was covered with hand prints surrounded by a red blood-like colour. It looked like some gristly murder had taken place, the victim having placed his bloodied hands against the wall as some macabre event took place. Luckily this scene only took place in my imagination. In reality the hand prints are art. Ancient art.

The real scene is quite peaceful. A cave featuring prehistoric art, surrounded by rice paddies. This cave is part of the Leang Leang prehistory park in the Maros karst in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Leang Leang caves are noted for their rock paintings, thought to date back 5000 years.

The paintings are stencils of human hands, made by placing the hand up against the wall and then blowing a mixture of red ochre and water around them, leaving a negative image on the rock. The effect is quite dramatic. Is this prehistoric Inkjet? I can imagine the artists having great fun as they created their handiwork — no pun intended!

Some hands face left, others face right. Apart from hands, the only other paintings are of a pig deer. This is the babirusa, an endemic wild deer-like pig, with long legs and tusks that curve upwards like horns.

We were staying in the capital of Sulawesi, Ujung Pandang. For centuries Sulawesi was a major transit point between the spice islands of Maluku and the trading ports of Java and the Malay peninsula. Many Makassarese live in Ujung Pandang, these are the Muslims who settled in the area.

I learnt that the name Leang Leang means “many caves” in the Makassarese dialect. The village of Leang Leang lies at the southern end of the limestone massif which houses all these caves and rock shelters. Although there are other rock paintings in Indonesia, these are some of the most easily accessible.

From our hotel, we had a half hour walk to reach the bemo station, where we got on a bus to Maros. I was very surprised to see a double decker bus driving past, as I don’t think I’d ever seen one before in southeast Asia. The bus ride to Maros took about 40 minutes. Here we had to negotiate a fare with a bemo driver, and once we were all happy he took us to Taman Prasejarah Leang Leang.

There are two caves of archaeological significance in the Leang Leang Park, the Pettae Cave and the Pettakere Cave. The Pettae cave was first studied in 1950. During the archaeological excavations, several stone artifacts were found, such as flakes, blades, arrow heads, neolithic axes etc., as well as animal bones. In the same year the cave paintings were also found.

The Pettakere Cave was only studied in 1973, by a British archaeologist. Again cultural artifacts were found, as well as a human skeleton. The cave walls have hand paintings, as well as the babirusa. In 1979 archaeologists from South Sulawesi continued the excavations.

We climbed up the steps to Gua Pettae, w

hich is basically just a chamber, containing the handprints. We then walked around to Gua Pettakere, and had to climb a steel ladder up 20m of cliff face to a higher entrance. Here we saw about half a dozen hand stencils and a babirusa. There were a couple more chambers to the cave and a vertical rift passage. There were good views down over the valley and I could imagine prehistoric man living here in such beautiful surroundings.

Leang Leang dates back to the prehistoric culture of hunting and gathering. The people were from the Toalan culture, which existed from 5000-1000 BC. In Malaysia at the same time, people were also practising a hunting gathering culture, especially in the Lenggong Valley in northern Perak. This was part of the Holocene period which was marked by the development of human culture. These Neolithic assemblages show Man was using tools and the babirusa paintings suggest evidence of pig domestication.

These two Maros caves were probably used as shelters by these early people. A kitchen midden was found in one of the caves. Associated with this were shells, animal bones and skins, all leftovers of these prehistoric people’s meals. Freshwater shells in particular, seem to have formed an important part of their diet.

These Neolithic paintings were the oldest known Indonesia, until French cavers found more ancient rock drawings in Kalimantan in the 1990s. Leang Leang is quite young in archaeological terms, being only some 5000 years old, as other caves in Sulawesi show evidence of human occupation from 31,000 years ago. However the oldest rock paintings in Malaysia are only about 2000 years old.

The significance of these paintings to that early society is not known. We are not even sure how the artists reached some of the high level passages. It is likely that the more inaccessible caves were used as burial sites, as in the case of the famous Tana Toraja area, some 200km to the north.

We asked the guide if there were other caves in the area, and he said no. The surrounding hills are obviously riddled with caves, but maybe the guide meant there are no more caves open to the public. Or maybe we had just exhausted our welcome. We knew there were caves at Bantimurung, and would be going there the next day, so we paid the guide and thanked him for his kindness, and set off back to our hotel in Ujung Pandang.

The Brunei Times

 

Sulawesi Tribes

South Sulawesi 25 Tribes

   Bajau 154.000 Islam5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verhiejen 1986). North Maluku on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa and Sula Islands; South Sulawesi, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai districts; Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts; North Sulawesi, Wori, Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Alternate names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Orang Laut, Sama, Turije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace. The Bajau (also calledSulawesi, tribe, bajau, suku the Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, or Lutaos) are a highly mobile maritime people group that is found throughout the coastal areas of Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, Sumatera, and East Nusa Tenggara. Their high mobility led to outsiders calling them ‘sea gypsies.’ In eastern Indonesia, the largest numbers of Bajau are found on the islands and in the coastal districts of Sulawesi. Their everyday language is the Bajau language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.
While some Bajau have begun to live on land, many Bajau are still boat dwellers. Among the Bajau boat dwellers, local communities consist of scattered moorage groups made up of families whose members regularly return, between intervals of fishing, to a common anchorage site. Two to six families will group together in an alliance to regularly fish and anchor together, often sharing food and pooling labor, nets, and other gear. The boats that are used as family dwellings vary in size and construction. In Indonesia and Malaysia, boats average 10 meters in length with a beam of about 2 meters. They are plank constructed with solid keel and bow sections. All are equipped with a roofed living area made of poles and kajang matting and a portable earthenware hearth, usually carried near the stern, used for preparing family meals. The marine life exploited by the Bajau fishermen is diverse, including over 200 species of fish. Fishing activity varies with the tides, monsoonal and local winds, currents, migrations of pelagic fish, and the monthly lunar cycle. During moonless nights, fishing is often done with lanterns, using spears and handlines. Today, fishing is primarily for market sale. Most fish are preserved by salting or drying. The boat-dwelling Bajau see themselves (in contrast to their neighbors), as non-aggressive people who prefer flight to physical confrontation. As a consequence, the politically dominant groups of the region have historically viewed the Bajau with disdain as timid, unreliable subjects.
The Bajau are Sunni Muslims of the Shafi’i school.
Bentong 27.000 Islamnorthwest corner of the southern tip of the peninsula; inland parts of Maros, Bone, Pangkep, and Barru districts. Alternate names: Dentong. Dialects: Most similar to Konzo. The Bentong people are also known as the “To Bentong”. They are located inland to the east of the town of Pangkep in the province of South Sulawesi. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. According to the Bentong, they are the descendants of a marriage between the son of the King of Bone and the daughter of the King of Ternate. Other sources state the Bentong are the descendants of Bugis and Makasar intermarriage. This seems likely since Bentong culture is influenced by elements of both the Bugis and Makasar cultures. The Bentong are nomads and are still categorized by the government as an “isolated” society.
The Bentong live in a hilly area approximately 400-500 meters above sea level. This area is marked by dense forest underbrush, with limited land available for both irrigated and un-irrigated rice fields. Until 1975 there were no major roads, except for narrow footpaths, connecting the area with the outside world. A large portion of the Bentong people live as farmers and fishermen. Their primary production is copra, rice, and processing of forest products. The Bentong marriage system calls for marriages among people of the same group. A young man desiring to marry a woman outside his own group must remember that he has the duty to give preference to a woman within his own group. Traditionally, the groom offers a dowry. In the past, this dowry took the form of land or cloth. After marriage, the newlyweds can reside near either the husband’s or wife’s relatives.
The Bentong people are followers of Islam.
Bonerate 11.000 IslamBonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands. Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji]The BoneratSulawesi, tribe, bonerate, sukue live on the islands of Bonerate, Madu, Lalaotoa, Karompa, and Selayar in South Sulawesi Province. These islands are part of the districts of Bonerate, Passimasungu (North Bonerate), and Passimarane in Selayar Regency. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. Bonerate Island is in a very remote location. To reach Bonerate from the South Sulawesi capital of Makassar takes 2-3 days. The first part of the trip is a ferry ride to Benteng on Selayar Island, and the second part involves renting a fishing boat since there is no public transportation to Bonerate. Their primary language is the Bonerate language, which is made up of two dialects, the Bonerate and Karompa.
There has been a steady population drain from Bonerate due to people moving to other parts of Sulawesi, such as Makassar, Kendari, and Toli-Toli. The Bonerate typically move to Makassar to seek a better education and employment. Quite a few Bonerate have become cloth and bread sellers in urban markets. Many have migrated to Toli-Toli and Kendari with the hope of receiving broader, more fertile farmland for a cheaper price. The primary ways Bonerate people make a living are through fishing and farming. The land’s primary produce are cassava, sweet potatoes, cloves, and sago palm, which grow naturally, without fertilizer. Bonerate farmers typically cannot grow other types of vegetables because the land is too dry. To fulfill their needs, vegetables are brought in from other islands. They also eat marine food such as seaweed, teripang, lola, and bole-bole. The main foods of the Bonerate are cassava, sago, and sweet potatoes. Houses are built on raised platforms with the vacant space underneath used for storage. Houses are neatly arranged in rows, with two rows of houses as long as the island. One row of houses is nicer than the houses in the second row, which is explained by the owners’ differing levels of income. Bathing and bathroom needs are carried out on the shoreline.
The majority of Bonerate people are Muslims but are also influenced by strong animistic beliefs. Primarily, they believe that a powerful spirit inhabits the sea. Therefore, when heavy winds and high waves occur, the people often believe that this ruler of the sea is angry. Various ceremonies and rituals are used to pacify the sea spirit.
Bugis 3.500.000 IslamWestern coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central. The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province Sulawesi, tribe, bugis, sukuof South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

Most Bugis make their living by hunting, fishing, farming, raising livestock or making handicrafts. Typically, the Bugis who live in the mountain ranges gain their livelihood by working the soil, while those living in the coastal areas generally work as fishermen. The Bugis traditional dress is called Wajo Ponco, which is believed to have originated from Melayu (Malay) dress. Currently, the dress is only used for traditional ceremonies and dances. The BugiSulawesi, tribe, bugis, sukus believe very strongly that certain days are good days, with good fortune for events and activities held on the first Wednesday and last Thursday of each month. Conversely, they consider Saturday to be a bad day, with misfortune more likely to happen on this day. In Bugis tradition there are different levels of social status that are based upon one’s ancestors. These different levels include descendants of a king, descendants of nobles (La Patau), descendants of district administrators (Aru Lili) and descendants of various kinds of slaves. Two of the most important cultural values for the Bugis people are called siri (personal honor) and siri-pesse (communal honor). A Bugis person must defend, maintain, and build one’s own siri. The effort to obtain and maintain siri varies according to the context. For instance, in an economic context, siri means working hard and being faithful. In a personal context, if a person’s siri is offended serious forms of revenge will be considered. Islam reinforced the traditional Bugis concept of siri in such a way that today the typical Bugis person sees siri as the key to his or her self-identity as a Bugis Muslim. The Bugis line of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). After marriage the newlyweds may choose to live near either the husband’s or wife’s family, although initially, they live at least briefly near the wife’s family.
The Bugis people are famous for their fervent adherence to Sunni Islam.

Bunku 24.000 Islam100 Routa, 16,400 Bungku, 2,500 Torete, 1,000 Tulambatu, 800 Landawe, 650 Waia. Central Sulawesi, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, along east coast; 45 villages or parts of villages. Tulambatu in northern Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts, with difficult access. Alternate names: “Nahina”. Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects, 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf], 88%, with Landawe dialect, 84% with Waia dialect, 82% with Torete dialect, 74% with Wawonii [wow], 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups, 82% with the Routa dialect. The Bungku people (also called “To Bungku”) live in the districts of North Bungku, Central Bungku, South Bungku, and Merui, in the Poso Regency of Central Sulawesi Province. They are also found in several other areas of Sulawesi. The Bungku people are further divided into subgroups such as Lambatu, Epe, Rete, and Ro’Uta. The language used by the Bungku people is Bungku (often called Bungku Laki, or Male Bungku), which is of the same group with various Filipino languages. This language can be divided into several dialects, such as Taa, Merui and Lalaeo. The immigrant communities in this area use their own language, such as the Bugis, Bajo and Jawa languages. Many marriages take place between the Bungku people and the immigrant peoples, hence the relationship between the groups is relatively good in this region. In the past, Bungku people lived in remote inland areas and had little contact with outsiders. With the building of the Trans-Sulawesi highway, they have become more open to outsiders. Although they are inhabitants of Southeast Sulawesi, their culture is greatly influenced by the Bugis culture. According to history, some of the Bungku ancestors were a group of Bugis who migrated to the area.
The Bungku make their living as farmers. They grow rice, corn and sweet potatoes as their primary crops, and coconuts and sago palms as secondary crops. The Bungku also harvest resin and rattan that grow in the thick jungles that still exist in their area. Their land is typically less fertile than other areas of Southeast Sulawesi. Formerly, Bungku communities were segregated into three classes. The heads of the village formed the elite group. The common people formed the middle group. The slaves were the final and lowest group.
The majority of the Bungku people have embraced Islam.
Coastal Konjo 155.000 Islam50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro. South Sulawesi, southeast corner, southern tip of the peninsula; parts of Sinjai, Bulukumba, and Bantaeng districts. Alternate names: Kondjo, Tiro. Dialects: Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Tana Towa, Black Konjo, Kajang, Kadjang), Bantaeng (Bonthain). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]. Tana Toa dialect is within 10% lexical similarity with other coastal dialects.The Konjo people cluster consist of two groups, namely the Konjo Pegunungan (mountain) and the Konjo Pesisir (coastal). The Konjo Pesisir people (also known as Tiro) live in the districts of Kajang, Herlang, Bonto Tiro, and Bonto Bahari in the southeast area of the Bulukumba Regency in the province of South Sulawesi. The Konjo Pesisir speak the Konjo language which has several dialects, namely Tana Toa, Konjo Hitam and Kajang.The Konjo Hitam (Black Konjo) people, who are included among the Konjo Pesisir, occupy an area to the west of Kajang. They have chosen to be a community which maintains the old ways of living, such as wearing black clothes, not being allowed to use tools, and practicing occultism as part of their animistic worship. These Konjo Hitam consider themselves the original inhabitants and regard their area as the center of traditional custom for all of the Konjo Pesisir. They have never had a king and do not follow a system of social stratification like other Konjo groups.
The Konjo Pesisir make their living (as do the Konjo Pegunungan) by cultivating the land with a system for dividing the crops. The farm workers receive one-third to one-half of the profits, depending on who pays for seeds and planting needs. The houses of the Konjo Pesisir can be seen all along the main roads, but there are also houses which are located off the main road and near the unirrigated fields in rural areas. Their community is divided into a series of governmental administrative units, the smallest of which has 10 households. The Konjo Pesisir people are fond of gathering into groups and discussing a wide range of matters. They are supportive of each other in work and finances, and in various activities such as attending marriage ceremonies, visiting the sick, and visiting to offer condolences if there is a death. Despite conflicts among themselves, they are united in facing threats from the outside. The Konjo Pesisir people tend to be materialistic and proud, in that they demonstrate a competitive desire to gain more wealth and spend lavishly merely to impress others. They also feel that they must protect their siri (honor/self-esteem) as well as that of their community.
The Konjo Pesisir people are Muslims. However, animistic practices are still maintained, and the Islamic religious leader does not have much influence. The people choose him for leading religious ceremonies and duties in the mesjid (mosque). A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) from the Konjo Hitam is called to perform ceremonies and to heal the sick. Amma Toa (old father) from the Konjo Hitam is regarded as the religious leader in that area and is feared because of his magical powers.

KAJANG TRIBE” THE BLACK COMMUNITY “ Kajang situated about 58 km north-west from Bira beach, Kajang is a sub-district from Bulukumba regency, the interest point in Tana-Toa village where live the leather of Pra-islamic called:”Amma-Toa’”.The village covering the forest conservation area according to the teaching of the;Tana-Toa,every houses inside built in natural material from plant inside the area, and not any modern material use even nail, zinc-roof and electricity, really interest to visit in the global era The Kajang people is sub-ethnic of Makassar ethnic who in habited (occupied) a particular area. The area and the people the people are quite isolated from the livings of other people of Bulukumba. The head of this group is called “Amatoa” who considered holy. For those who are eager to see her, are obliged to wear a black shirt and black “sarong”, and it will be better to meet him without any shoes or sandals. They live harmoniously with the nature, and they do not use modern facilities i.e. means of transportation. For that reason, no cars and they like permitted to enter this area. The meeting ceremony with “Amatoa” is very unique event. The most famous adat community in Sulawesi, Kajang Dalam, located within the administrative borders of Bulukumba. Although the Kecamantan of Kajang has its formal structures with the camat and kepala desa, there is a parallel adat structure under the authority of the Amma Toa that exists and seems not to need formal recognition from the district government. The size of the adat territory in Kajang Dalam is approximately 25 hectares. The territory is called rambbang seppang. This already includes 2 hectares of the Amma Toa’s land, and the rest is divided into 4 villages; Tana Toa, Malleleng, Bonto Baji, and Batu Nilamung. At present there are community mapping initiatives involving AMAN SS and others to clearly indicate the wilayah adat and to support claims over this territory. The informal borders that separate this customary territory from the rest of the Kajang Luar are respected by everyone. If one wants to enter Kajang Dalam, for instance, permission must be requested first, and once this is obtained various protocol have to be followed, such as the removal of ones shoes and socks, the wearing of all black clothes, and so on. While the influence of modern life has started to creep into this territory, the customs of old take precedence and life still reflects the ways of the ancestors.

 

   Duri 121.000 Islam90,000 in Enrekang District. South Sulawesi, north Enrekang District, Makassar City, elsewhere in South Sulawesi. Alternate names: Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu. Dialects: Cakke, Kalosi. The Duri people (also called Massenrempulu) live in Enrekang Regency, a mountainous area with a cool climate in the middle of the province of South Sulawesi, adjacent to Tanah Toraja (region of the Toraja people). The Duri area consists of 17 villages in the districts of Baraka, Alla, and Anggeraja. This area is close to a major road that is passable by automobiles.A small number of Duri people live in the very high mountains. The majority of them live in rural areas. Some Duri, primarily men, have migrated to other areas. This is typically known as perantau (going to other areas to seek success). They converse in the Duri language, which has Cakke and Kalosi dialects.
The majority of the Duri people live by farming, tending orchards, raising livestock, and making handicrafts. Their main crops consist of red onions, coffee, rice, and various kinds of vegetables. The Duri also make traditional cheese, known as dangke. Cow or water buffalo milk is combined with fruit concentrate or papaya leaves and then poured into a small coconut shell. The resulting cheese is sold in the traditional market, packaged in a banana leaf. The traditional market is held in specific locations once or twice a week.The Duri people possess a family oriented attitude and practice gotong royong (mutual help and cooperation). In the past, they distinguished layers in society, known as the nobility, the commoners, and slaves. Nowadays, that difference is no longer seen.In current Duri society, social status is more determined by level of education and/or wealth. Wealth is measured in terms of ownership of water buffalo, land, gold and a nice house. Generally, those who are educated move to the city.In their attitude toward education, the Duri are open-minded. They are also open to things that can raise their standard of living. The Indonesian language is taught in their schools. Among the Duri, adults and children both like to read, but only a very few books are available in their language.
Almost all Duri people are Muslims. However, they also combine traditional animistic beliefs with Islam. This can be seen from their awe in facing invisible spiritual powers. They also use a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) to heal sicknesses and cast out the evil spirits. A small number of Duri still identify themselves as animists who practice Alu’Tojolo.
Enrekang 64.000 IslamEnrekang, and Pinrang districts. Alternate names: Endekan, Endekan Timur. Dialects: Enrekang, Ranga, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa). The Enrekang people are alsSulawesi, tribe, enrekang, sukuo sometimes known as the Endekan or East Endekan people. They live in the foothills around the regencies of Enrekang and Pinrang in the province of South Sulawesi. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. The Enrekang are part of a larger linguistic grouping called the Masenrempulu which also includes the Duri, Maiwa, and Malimpung. The culture of the Enrekang has been influenced by its more populous and more powerful neighbors, namely the Toraja and Bugis people. The languages of Toraja and Bugis have influenced the Enrekang language and consequently there are many similarities and a great degree of mutual intelligibility.
The primary means of livelihood for the Enrekang people is farming. Their main crops are rice, fruits, and gula aren (sugar palms which are processed into sugar). Rice is their primary food. They also raise domesticated livestock such as water buffalo, goats, and chickens to fulfill their needs. Small farmers take care of the land and look after the crops until harvest time. Many Enrekang marriages are still arranged by the parents and family elders. For several years after their marriage, a new couple lives with the wife’s family. After they are fairly well established, the new family may move to live in their own house.The traditional Enrekang house is raised on stilts that are three meters high. This is done as protection from attacks by wild animals. Both the walls and floors of the house are made from wooden planks. The enclosure below the house can also be used as a stall for livestock or as a storehouse. Often, burial ceremonies are still performed inside caves in the mountain slopes, so those accompanying the burial must climb tall, steep mountainsides. The ceremony has the purpose of freeing the spirit of the deceased and giving the spirit power to move to the next world.
Many of the Enrekang are devout Muslims. Thus they believe that they will be judged according to their knowledge of the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) as well as the balance between their good and bad deeds. The laws of traditional culture are still used and have been combined with Islamic law. Despite their professed loyalty to Islam, many Enrekang are still influenced by traditional animistic beliefs and superstitions. These beliefs are focused on the quest for protection through magic, by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits.
Laiyolo 800 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang. South Sulawesi, Laiyolo in villages of Lembang Mate’ne in Desa Laiyolo, and a few in Kilotepo’ and Sangkeha’. Barang-Barang village in Desa Lowa, southern tip of Selayar Island. Alternate names: Barang-Barang, Da’ang. Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Barang-Barang dialect may need separate literature. Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Buton, 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb]. Lemolang 2.400 IslamLuwu Utara District, inland from the northeast coast, centered in Sassa and Salassa villages, scattered in Sabbang subdistrict, and possibly Baebunta. Alternate names: Baebunta, Limola. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Buton, 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug]. Maiwa 55.000 IslamEnrekang and Sidenrang districts. Alternate names: MasenrempuluThe Maiwa people live in the low plains in the area of Enrekang and Sidenrang in the province of South Sulawesi. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. The Maiwa are part of a larger linguistic grouping called the Masenrempulu, which also includes the Duri, Enrekang, and Malimpung. The Masenrempulu people groups have been culturally influenced by the larger neighboring people groups, primarily the Toraja and Bugis people. The Toraja and Bugis languages have influenced the Masenrempulu languages and there is a degree of mutual intelligibility.
The Maiwa are primarily farmers who rice in irrigated fields. Rice is their main staple food. Some Maiwa cultivate fruit and sugar palms which are processed into palm sugar. Oftentimes, livestock such as water buffalo, goats and chickens are raised to augment their livelihood. Since about one-third of the farmers in southern Sulawesi do not own enough land, they are forced to sharecrop on the fields of wealthier farmers. These wealthy individuals provide farmland and finances for planting, while the groups of small farmers care for and look after the fields until harvest time. The Maiwa sometimes work as day laborers in several Sulawesi cities.The Maiwa people possess a family oriented attitude and practice gotong royong (mutual help and cooperation). Many of the marriages are still arranged by parents or grandparents. A newlywed couple often lives with the wife’s family for the first few years of their marriage. In the past, the Maiwa distinguished layers in society, known as the nobility, the commoners, and slaves. Currently, that difference is no longer seen. In current Maiwa society, social status is more determined by level of education and/or wealth. Some of the Maiwa live in houses built on platforms. These houses are sometimes three meters or more off the ground, with plank walls and floors. This raised style provides protection against attacks by wild animals. The area below the house may be used as a stall for livestock or as a storage space.
The Maiwa people have been Muslims since the 17th century. Islam was forced upon them by military pressure from their larger and stronger neighbors, the Bugis and Makassar.
Makassar 2.450.000 Islamsouthwest corner of the peninsula, most of Pangkep, Maros, Gowa, Bantaeng, Jeneponto, and Takalar districts. Alternate names: Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena. Dialects: Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Turatea (Jeneponto), Maros-Pangkep. Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain. The Makassar people (alsSulawesi, tribe, makassar, sukuo known as the Taena, Tena, or Goa) inhabit the southern part of the southwestern peninsula of Sulawesi. The heart of their area is Makassar, the capital city of the province of South Sulawesi. In addition to urban areas, the Makassar also live in the Konjo highlands, the coastal areas, and the Selayar and Spermo islands. Their language is the Makassar language, which is divided into the Gowa, Turaka, and Maros-Pangkep dialects.
The primary source of income among the Makassar is rice farming; however, they are also well known throughout Indonesia for their skill in trading. Some are also skilled fishermen. Their houses are often built on stilts, two meters above the ground. Makassar houses in the plains and beach areas are grouped closely, whereas those in the mountains are spread out. The fishermen living on the beaches build their houses in rows facing the sea or the main road. Villages like these are known as kampung pajjaku (fishermen village). Farmers build their houses around the fields. Villages like these are known as kampung pamarri (farmer villages). Each village usually has a center (pecci tana) which formerly was considered a sacred place, marked by a sacred (banyan) tree.Division of labor among the Makassar is strict because of the rigid separation of the sexes. Men are responsible for matters outside the house such as farming, working the plows, and carrying rice bundles after the harvest. The household duties are assigned exclusively to women. The family structure is headed by the man. The wife and children must show respect for the head of the household while they are in public. Final decisions concerning the family are always the husband’s responsibility. In rural locations, marriages are still arranged by the parents and/or close relatives. Communication between the prospective bride and groom is strictly prohibited. Polygamy (having multiple wives) is accepted; however, it is only practiced among the wealthy since a separate house must be provided for each wife.Siri (respect and honor) is the social code by which the Makassar live. Anyone seriously offending another person’s siri runs the risk of being killed and the external authorities will often refuse to become involved.The Makassar often work alongside their neighbors in matters of mutual concern, such as building houses and working in the rice fields. They also gather for times of celebration, such as birthdays and weddings.
The Makassar people are almost all Muslims, nevertheless traditional beliefs are still influential, especially in the remote areas. They maintain beliefs in gods and ancestral spirits; giving ritual offerings in the required manner. Special ceremonies are held at the beginning of planting and harvest seasons. They believe these ancestral spirits have a direct influence on their daily lives.
Malimpung 5.900 IslamPinrang District, Patampanua subdistrict, Malimpung area. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt]. Mamasa 124.000 ChristianWest SSulawesi, tribe, mamasa, sukuulawesi, Polmas District, Polewali subdistrict, along Mamasa River. Dialects: Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Southern Mamasa, Patta’ Binuang, Binuang, Tae’, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [ska]. Mori Atas 18.000 Islamsoutheast peninsula neck, Mori Atas, Lembo, and Petasia subdistricts; south Sulawesi. 25 villages or parts of villages. Alternate names: Upper Mori, West Mori. Dialects: Aikoa. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo]. Sulawesi, one of the major islands of Indonesia, is a home to the (also known as the Aikoa). Sulawesi is a large, crab-shaped island that is generally mountainous and marked by volcanic cones. Tropical rain forests cover most of the land up to 1,000 feet in elevation, with dense forests occurring at higher altitudes. Due to the volcanic activity, deep valleys and gorges can also be seen throughout the area.

Mori villages are built with the village temple in the center. The Mori have a strong loyalty to their tribe, which is made up of several villages having a common “mother” village. If one village is endangered, it is the duty of the rest of the tribal members to protect it.

Although agriculture is the principal means of livelihood in the region, ironwood and ebony are also valuable commodities. Sulawesian industry varies from wood carving and rice milling to the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals.
The island of Sulawesi has a hot, humid climate with an average yearly temperature of about 27 degrees C (80 degrees F). The average yearly rainfall is from 305 to 368 centimeters (120 to 145 inches). Most of the Mori are wet-rice farmers, although they also grow maize, tobacco, and coffee for export. Some Mori are blacksmiths who are particularly skilled at making swords. Their primary diet consists of fish, rice, and maize.

Within the Mori tribes, aristocratic rulers head up the political hierarchy, with elders leading local “kin groups.” These rulers were once thought to be divine, but this belief has faded over the years. Traditionally, the Mori went on headhunting raids against their enemies. Heads were also required to maintain general village welfare, as well as for the building of new temples. Until as recently as 1905, headhunting was a common practice.

Most of the Mori live in houses that have only a sleeping room and a large living room. The living room may, which may also serve as the kitchen, usually contains a rectangular hearth filled with clay and ashes. These houses often stand on stilts about 1.8 meters (6 feet) high. The space underneath is used for cattle stalls or chicken coops, or to store tools and firewood. The floors and walls are made of timber or flattened bamboo. The roofs are covered with either clay tiles or with thatch made out of palm leaves.

The Mori are a very festive people and are famous for their traditional dances. Their art forms, such as wood carvings and weaving, are also well known. A colorful skirt called a sarong is typically worn by both the men and women.
The Mori follow the beliefs of Islam, but with a strong core of spirit worship. Some of the more important deities that they worship are associated with smallpox, rice, air, and fate. When an important person dies, his bones are cleaned and put into caves at the tewusa or death feast. Then every three to five years, another ceremony called the woke” is held to honor these deceased ancestors. Here, the bones of the honored dead are removed from the caves, rewrapped, and buried. Such ceremonies are usually conducted by a priestess who has a familiar spirit.

Mori-Bawah 18.000 ChristianCentral Sulawesi, southeast peninsula neck; Petasia and Lembo subdistricts, 24 villages, or parts of villages; south Sulawesi. Alternate names: East Mori, Lower Mori, “Nahina”. Dialects: Tambe’e, Nahina, Petasia, Soroako, Karonsie. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo]. Padoe 7.100 ChristianSouth Sulawesi, east Luwu Utara District in Nuha, Malili, Mangkutana subdistricts; Central Sulawesi, Banggai District, Mori Atas subdistrict, 2 villages, Pamona Utara subdistrict, 1 village. Alternate names: Alalao, Pado窠 South Mori. Dialects: 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Pamona 170.000 ChristianCentral and South Sulawesi provinces, Poso District, Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Parigi, Lage, Pamona Utara, Pamona Selatan, Tojo, Ulubongko, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Una-Una, Mori Atas, Petasia, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah subdistricts; 193 villages. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Mangkutana, north Wotu and Bone-Bone subdistricts. Alternate names: Bare’e, Baree, Poso. Dialects: Pamona, Laiwonu (“Iba” ), Rapangkaka (“Aria” ), Tomoni, Tobau (Tobao, Tobalo, “Bare’e” ), Tokondindi, Topada, Taa (Wana, Topotaa). Related to Tombelele [ttp]. Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala, which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language. Rampi 8.0002,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Masamba subdistrict. 6 isolated mountain villages; Central Sulawesi, Poso, Donggala districts, Sabbang Limbong, Wotu, and Mangkutana subdistricts. 15 villages. Rato have moved elsewhere. Alternate names: Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni. Dialects: Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect. Seko-Padang 6.600 Christian2,300 in the Seko area. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Limbong subdistrict, northeast section; half resettled Central Sulawesi, Palolo Valley. Alternate names: Seko, Sua Tu Padang, Wono. Dialects: Lodang, Hono’ (Wono).Selayar 131.000 IslamSouth Sulawesi, Selayar Island. Alternate names: Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak]. The inland SalajareSulawesi, tribe, selayar, sukuse are primarily farmers. Maize is their staple crop; grain and dry rice are secondary crops. Coconuts and lemons are cash crops that are exchanged for other necessary items. Fishing is the main occupation for those living on the coast. Sea cucumbers, turtles, and shellfish comprise part of their catch.

There are very few Salajarese villages. Homes tend to be scattered around the various farming areas. Most homes have plank walls with thatched roofs. Each house contains a kitchen, a porch, and bedrooms. They are usually built up on stilts. The average household consists of a nuclear family. Often when relatives do not possess a house, they will live with their close relatives. Children are raised by their parents, elder siblings, and other relatives or household members.

The island of Salajar is divided into regions, some of which are ruled by women. Regalia (sacred emblems) represent each region. There are a number of subtle social classes evident, including the descendants of rulers, nobility, commoners, and slaves.

In general, the division of labor is strict because of the rigid separation of sexes in everyday life. In agriculture, men do the hard work, such as plowing and carrying the farm produce. Traditionally, women tend to most of the harvesting, in addition to the traditional household duties.

In the rural locations, marriages are still arranged exclusively by the parents or close relatives. Traditionally, the groom’s social rank must be equal to or higher than that of the bride. Marriages between second cousins are preferred among the commoners; while only nobles are allowed to marry first cousins. This is in order to retain the nobility and wealth within the close family. The “bride price” is divided into “spending money,” which is used by the bride’s family to cover the costs of the wedding feast, and a “rank price,” which is given to the bride. If the groom’s family cannot afford to pay an acceptable bride price, the couples often elope.

Intermarriage between villages tends to be the rule. This has resulted in complex, widespread kinship networks. Social rank among the Salajarese is established by the rank of ancestors.
Islam has been the dominant religion among the Salajarese since the seventeenth century. Today, virtually all of the Salajarese are Sunni Muslims. However, animistic beliefs (belief that non-living objects have spirits) are still prevalent. The belief that all things in nature have souls strongly influences their daily lives and religious practices.

Tae’ 250.000 IslamSouth Sulawesi, Kabupaten Luwu from Larompong District through Sabbang, and scattered pockets. Rongkong in Luwu District, southeast Limbong and Sabbang subdistricts. Also an enclave in Wasuponda, Nuha subdistrict near Soroako town. Alternate names: East Toraja, Luwu, Rongkong, Rongkong Kanandede, Sada, Sangangalla’, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, To Rongkong, Toraja Timur, Toware. Dialects: Rongkong, Northeast Luwu, South Luwu, Bua, Toala’, Palili’. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects, over 86% with the northern dialects, 80% with Toraja-Sa’dan.Toala’ 44.000 IslamSouth Sulawesi, Luwu District from Masamba to south tip of the district. Toala’ from foothills to the divide. Palili’ on a narrow coastal strip overlapping with Bugis Luwu. Alternate names: East Toraja, Luwu’, Sada, Sangangalla’, Toala, Toala-Palili, Toraja Timur, Toware. Dialects: Toala’, Palili’. Probably at least 4 dialects. Lexical similarity: 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Prior to the twentieth century, the Toala highlands were often raided for coffee and slaves. Headhunting raids to avenge the death of a kinsman were also common.
Most Toala raise all of their own food. Rice, the major crop, is planted in terraced paddies and harvested by hand. Single metal-bladed plows drawn by water buffalo or men are still in use. Toala farmers also grow maize, chilies, beans, yams, and potatoes. Cash crops include coffee and cloves. They also gather snails, eels, and small fish from unplanted wet rice fields. Domestic animals include chickens, pigs, and water buffaloes, which are sacrificed on ritual occasions.
Villages tend to be small and are located either on hilltops or scattered along the plains. As many as four to six families may live together in one house. Villages are based on local “kin groups,” with all of the members being related by blood or marriage. Emphasis is placed on respect for one’s elders, diligence, and the importance of the family over one’s individual and personal needs.
In the past, some marriages of the aristocracy were polygynous (having many wives), but today most are monogamous (having only one spouse). Once married, a person could choose to live in the village of his father, mother, or spouse. Some marriages are still arranged by the parents; but today, most young people are allowed to select their own mates.
Adoption is a very common occurrence among the Toala. Children are reared by both their parents and their siblings. It is believed that family ties can be extended and strengthened by allowing relatives and friends to adopt one’s children. In such cases, the children will often move back and forth between the households of their adoptive and biological parents.
The Toala are known for their elaborately carved houses and rice barns, as well as life-size statues of certain wealthy, deceased aristocrats.
The Toala are 99% Sunni Muslims. However, various forms of animistic practices (belief that non-human objects have spirits) have continued to influence their culture.
Among the Toala, the funeral is the most critical event in life. They believe that this ritual allows the deceased to leave the world of the living and proceed to the next. Funeral ceremonies vary in length and complexity, depending on one’s wealth and status.
Toraja-Sadan 631.000 ChristianSoutSulawesi, tribe, suku,totaja, toraja sadanh Sulawesi, Tana Toraja District, large groups in Luwu District, Makassar City; southeast Sulawesi, west coast, Kolaka and Wundulako districts. Alternate names: Sa’dan, Sa’dansche, Sadan, Sadang, South Toraja, Ta’e, Tae’, Toradja, Toraja. Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (West Toraja, Mappa-Pana). Rantepao is prestige dialect. Wotu 6.800 IslamSouth SuSulawesi, tribe, suku, wotulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Wotu subdistrict, Wotu town. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi subgroup, 43% with Kaili-Pamona subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley].

KAJANG TRIBE” THE BLACK COMMUNITY “ Kajang situated about 58 km north-west from Bira beach, Kajang is a sub-district from Bulukumba regency, the interest point in Tana-Toa village where live the leather of Pra-islamic called:”Amma-Toa’”.The village covering the forest conservation area according to the teaching of the;Tana-Toa,every houses inside built in natural material from plant inside the area, and not any modern material use even nail, zinc-roof and electricity, really interest to visit in the global era The Kajang people is sub-ethnic of Makassar ethnic who in habited (occupied) a particular area. The area and the people the people are quite isolated from the livings of other people of Bulukumba. The head of this group is called “Amatoa” who considered holy. For those who are eager to see her, are obliged to wear a black shirt and black “sarong”, and it will be better to meet him without any shoes or sandals. They live harmoniously with the nature, and they do not use modern facilities i.e. means of transportation. For that reason, no cars and they like permitted to enter this area. The meeting ceremony with “Amatoa” is very unique event. The most famous adat community in Sulawesi, Kajang Dalam, located within the administrative borders of Bulukumba. Although the Kecamantan of Kajang has its formal structures with the camat and kepala desa, there is a parallel adat structure under the authority of the Amma Toa that exists and seems not to need formal recognition from the district government. The size of the adat territory in Kajang Dalam is approximately 25 hectares. The territory is called rambbang seppang. This already includes 2 hectares of the Amma Toa’s land, and the rest is divided into 4 villages; Tana Toa, Malleleng, Bonto Baji, and Batu Nilamung. At present there are community mapping initiatives involving AMAN SS and others to clearly indicate the wilayah adat and to support claims over this territory. The informal borders that separate this customary territory from the rest of the Kajang Luar are respected by everyone. If one wants to enter Kajang Dalam, for instance, permission must be requested first, and once this is obtained various protocol have to be followed, such as the removal of ones shoes and socks, the wearing of all black clothes, and so on. While the influence of modern life has started to creep into this territory, the customs of old take precedence and life still reflects the ways of the ancestors.

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